Alternative Energy | The survival encyclopedia - Part 7

Determining the height of: measuring the shadow subject

Put a stick upright in the shade near its top and measure the length of the stick, covered by the shadow (Fig. 30). Then WB / AB = Ar / Ar> where x = aGh (WB / ab)> ie, dividing the length covered by the shadow of the stick on the distance to the top of the shade of a tree and multiplying that number by the length of the shadow of the tree, we get high wood or any other object. When the shadow of the stick is equal to its length, the height of the object is also equal to the length of its shadow. Read more [...]
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Definition of raptors

Each hunter must learn cultural distinguish the main species of birds and especially harmful predators. It is important to be able to identify birds in the field, sometimes at a considerable distance. The main concerns when considering their characteristics should be given to the forms (silhouette) flying birds (Fig.43), the features of their flight behavior, typical of habitats habitat, size, and the most characteristic features of their color. Hawk. Some of the most harmful of raptors - hawks and goshawks hawk "- live in wooded areas of our country that determine the nature of Read more [...]
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Dangerous animals in the forest. Recommendations for nature lovers

Walk through the forest - it's always the joy of communicating with the world of nature, it is a whole range of feelings and experiences, painted in the spring-summer and autumn-winter colors. However, fans of such travel must know: the forest - is primarily a very complex set of relationships of plants, animals, soil, sunlight and darkness of the night, the air and water. The man in the woods - a guest, but from the point of view of forest dwellers - uninvited and unwelcome guest, often not knowing the rules of conduct "at a party." Hence - accidents, emergencies, trauma, fears, Read more [...]
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Crossing the Water

For crossing water obstacles should use boats and kayaks. Loading boats (canoes) to be uniform. Backpacks are laid low, in the middle. Members of the group should be placed so that the food was below the bow. In crossing follow safety rules.  Cross on rafts can, if their size and capacity appropriate to the type and quality of different types of wood: Type of wood Lifting capacity of 1 m2 wood in kg   freshly cut dry Poplar, pine, fir, spruce 250 500 Pine, aspen, willow, alder 200 450 Read more [...]
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Cornflower lozhnopyatnisty

Biennial plant height 30-70 cm stems are erect, branched, ribbed-grooved, sharply rough. Lower leaves twice pinnate, with petioles, upper-pinnate or entire, sessile, terminal lobes of leaves linear, 1-4 mm wide. Ovoid baskets, collected in total shirokometelchatoe inflorescence. Involucre ovoid, 10-14 mm long and 10-13 mm wide, bracts with five ribs, appendages outer and middle bracts are dark brown, with 6-9 fimbriae on each side. The flowers are pink. Fruits - with light brown achene ribs and a short crest. Blooms in June-August, achenes ripen in July and October. European appearance, slightly Read more [...]
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Haloxylon white or sandy Shrub or tree up to 5-6 m in height with an openwork spherical bluish crown and bright yellowish-gray trunk to 8-20 cm in diameter. Young shoots whitish-gray. The leaves are very small and are filmy needle scales, located opposite. Flowers develop on short branches. It grows mainly in sandy deserts, hilly and overgrown dune sands of Central Asia, north of Afghanistan and northern Iran. Tolerates burial in sand, the root system sometimes goes into the ground to a depth of 10-11 m in the depressions forms mixed stands with black saxaul, more salt-tolerant and shade-loving. White Read more [...]
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In the depths of the largest and most dense forest, located in the territory of the reserve Entomological farm "Forest" of the Omsk region, there is very little - less than six square meters - furtive clearing. Here in the wilderness, no tall grass or bright butterflies, not even ants. Or rather, a nest very long time ago there was, but when there rose a dense aspen, turned into the woods, somehow do not like six-legged hunters, owners abandoned their homes and moved somewhere. The empty nest old donkey, sprouted grasses and was just a big hillock, seemingly lifeless, dull towering Read more [...]
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Clawed ground squirrel — spermophilopsis leptodactylus lichtenstein. Colonial and types of settlements

Data on the types of communities in the literature, information on the use of individual small mammals settlement territory is extremely limited. Despite the high mobility and relatively weak attachment to the burrows, it uses a significant individual plot, which consists, apparently, a number of separate feeding areas frequented beast alternately at certain periods of life. Within foraging areas are often permanent or temporary hastily dug holes, used for a short time, as the supply of food in the sand is small, so there is no long-term use of foraging areas. Their dimensions are in direct Read more [...]
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Law — the taiga. Chapter 6

It all ended so well that I do somlel and fell into a nightmarish dream, which, thank God, I could not remember. I remember that there was someone popped in French and I could not finish the phrase to the end, and kept repeating "donc ... donc ..." It is not really awake, I realized that this was not a dream, it's reality daveshny cries of crows and looked at him with longing - it's not on my gut whether he flew. Though why gut, because they peck your eyes first thing. Likely, wolverine, wolf, or somebody stole his prey, and now he turns again in anticipation pickings, vulture Read more [...]
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Chastuha podorozhnikovaya

Near the arrowhead meets another plant of the same family - chastuha podorozhnikovaya (Alisma plantago-aquatica). It is much more common arrowhead. Flowers are also collected in high inflorescences with whorled arrangement of twigs, usually many whorls (5.6, sometimes up to 10), they are a little closer together. And branches in whorls of 3, and 6-9. The flowers are pale pink, petals twice as long as the calyx, three of them, a cup is almost invisible during flowering, but remains in the fruit. Leaves, like the arrowhead different. Lower - floating, sessile, broadly, the other raised high Read more [...]
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Hazards to lightning

Linear lightning Due to the fact that lightning is characterized by high values of current, voltage and temperature of the discharge, the effects of lightning on a person usually ends very serious consequences - usually death. From a lightning strike in the world at an average annual kill of about 3000 people, and there are cases of simultaneous destruction of several people. Lightning is the path of least resistance. As well as between the object and the high thundercloud distance, and hence the electrical resistance is less, the lightning usually strikes the highest object, but not necessarily. Read more [...]
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Only the application of cats allowed climbers to climb steadily up the steep ice and firn slopes. Most convenient desyatizubye cats, consisting of two parts and made of high quality steel (Fig. 3). Weight of one pair of 1-1.2 kg. One tooth cats in endurance tests should support the weight of 80 kg. Figure 3. Cats The teeth of cats should have a tetrahedral shape. The thickness of the base - 8-10 mm, length 40-50mm, the two middle teeth slightly shorter (3-4 mm). Read more [...]
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CAREX L. Rhode — Sedges.

Herbaceous perennials 5-120 cm high. Propagation: All. Contain alkaloids and 0.8% in S. michellii Host, monoterpenondy, karotnnoidy, phytosterols, flavonoids, quinones, tsiklitoly, glycityl, and phenolic acids, esters and other aromatic Conn., higher fatty acids and fosfolnpndy established structure. Marked fatty oil to 10.3% of the fruit Passy Schreb, essential oil. Found seskviterpeioidy, leucoanthocyans, polysaccharides, vitamins B, C, H, PP. Medicinal. Those p an e VTI tical th action - arterio-and-venoras stuff, uterotonic - Hopes. CS brevicollis DC. in Lam. et DC. (State registry. Read more [...]
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Campanula patula

Perennial herb 30-70 cm tall, with a thin spindle-shaped root and erect branching stems, slightly ribbed. The leaves are alternate, basal and lower stem, oblong or spatulate, 3-6 cm long, crenate, the upper and the middle of the stem-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acuminate, entire or slightly serrate, sessile. The flowers are large, up to 3 cm, on long stalks, gathered at the tops of the stems in loose paniculate inflorescences. Calyx obconical, naked or rough-pubescent, with long-pointed teeth and strongly rejected, sometimes denticulate at the base. Corolla purple (there are individuals Read more [...]
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Building a shelter in the winter woods

Little to build winter shelters. Just make a reservation - all options for the forest (taiga, mountain taiga zone). The tundra is getting tougher. If the fire can not grow (because of the mask) and temperatures up to -15 - 20, fit for a group of one-sided shed or snow trench for an individual. Snow shovel to the ground, on the edge is sealed to the bottom-fir twigs, mat, sleeping bag. Top - cape, sprinkle edges with snow on top of snow and you can insulate. Inside - a candle. On the one hand - on the wall of blowing snow, head to the entrance. Construction time - 20 minutes. In order to Read more [...]
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Mint water

Perennial herb with long creeping rhizomes. Stems erect or ascending, 20-90 cm tall, branched, glabrous or with sparse hairs. The leaves are ovate or elliptic, 2-5 cm long and 1-3 cm wide, serrated at the edges, sometimes grayish of pubescence, with long petioles. Inflorescence capitate, short, often almost spherical or oval, composed of false whorls, which are located on the top of the stem or on short stalks in the axils of the upper leaves. Cup is 1.5 times longer than the peduncles, point-glandular, tubular, with 13 prominent veins, five long linear-subulate, pointed teeth, the base expanded. Read more [...]
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Blueberries ovalnolistnaya Splayed branched shrub 1,6-3 m high ribbed branches. The bark is light-brown, flaking films on young branches greyish. Leaves oblong or okrugloyaytsevidnye, pointed at the end, at first subtle, then leathery, margin entire, pale green top, bottom gray. Single flowers are formed at the ends of branches, bloom early, along with the leaves. Prodolgovatoovalny, 4-6 mm long, corolla yellowish-green, often with a pink tinge. Globose blue-black, with well developed bluish waxy coating edible berries to 1 cm in diameter, ripen in August - September. Common in northern Primorye, Read more [...]
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Bitterling creeping

Perennial herb 15-70 cm tall with a very long (up to 6 m) taproot and numerous long (up to a meter or more) root suckers. Stems are erect, ribbed, much branched from the base, arachnoid-pubescent, rarely glabrous. Leaves entire, hard, oblong to almost linear, edged up from pinnatifid, sessile. Baskets oblong-ovate, spreading the total collected in racemose-corymbose or paniculate inflorescence. Involucre oblong-ovate or ovate, 10-13 mm long and 5-8 mm wide, leaves wrappers slightly deflected, 3-4.5 mm long, with a filmy appendage, often ending in a small island, short hairs. Flowers pink, Read more [...]
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Bell krapivolistny

Perennial herb 30-100 cm tall, with thick fibrous roots. The stems and leaves are covered with stiff hairs. Stem erect, reddish, with sharp edges. The leaves are alternate, unequal-at the edges, the lower cordate-ovate, with long petioles, upper triangular-cordate, oval or lanceolate, sessile. The flowers are large, located on one or 2-4 in the axils of the upper leaves. Calyx obconical, blackish, with triangular sharp teeth. Venchikdlinoy 25-50 mm, blue-violet or almost white, shallow divided on rejected blades. Fruits - hanging ovoid capsule, dehiscing three holes at the base. Blooms Read more [...]
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Bear Grylls: Man vs. Wild — West Pacific (Season 5)

Bear Grylls, a brave expert extreme, again leaves for the adventure in "Man vs. Wild", has won millions of fans around the world. As part of the series "Life on the edge" to air out the fifth season of the hit show about survival, we can make a dangerous and exciting journey with Behar on the new routes. Taking a minimum of equipment - a flint, a flask of water and a knife - Bear voluntarily puts himself in the position of a lost tourist. He must find a way to civilization and reach out to people alive and unharmed. Take a Tour of extreme survival in the new season of the Read more [...]
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