Biennial plant height from 40 to 150 cm, with a ribbed faceted erect branching stems. The leaves are opposite, oblong, pointed, serrated edge, ciliated, basal - whole, with petioles, stem - sessile, pinnatifid. Flowers are in terminal inflorescence - spherical head diameter of 2-3 cm Involucre lanceolate, acuminate. Bracts are similar in shape to the wrapper leaves, elongated greenish-black bristly beard reaching scales with 15-20 mm in length. The flowers are yellowish-white, corolla tube length and four-limb. Stamens four. Fruit - achene. Blooms in June and July, the fruits ripen in July Read more [...]
Annuals, herbaceous perennials, 10-100 cm tall. Distribution: all regions except the Arctic.
In the experiment, the broth Subtitle. h urine output increases by 48%, the leaves reduce urine output by 6%.
Contain alkaloids, carbohydrates, and higher fatty acid established structure. Allocated fixed oil to 6.2% of the fruits S. viridis (L.) P. Beauv. Discovered polysaccharides vntamii C.
Medicinal. Therapeutic action - healing wounds - Subtitle. hours, benefits, diuretic - Hopes. h S. viridis. Indications - kidney and urinary tract: renal diseases and bladder diseases of the digestive system: Read more [...]
Climate and weather
The air temperature. Except for the area of glaciers and sea ice-covered, the air temperature in the Arctic summer is usually above 18 ° C. In the winter it sometimes reaches -56 ° C, and increases to a maximum of 0 ° C. In the sub-Arctic regions of the summer is short, with temperatures above 10 ° C. The coldest winter in the Northern Hemisphere.North Pole - it is the center of the ice in the Arctic realm where nothing and life is impossible. Temperature up to -52 °, the wind speed is 100 km per hour. The ice surface is very uneven, it is covered with cracks, Read more [...]
Many sea travel, especially in the polar regions, replete with facts the tragic death of seafarers - not in battle, not in the waves of the ocean in a storm, and from lack of food in some mysterious substances. Thus died the Barents captain in the New Earth, Commander Bering - the Pacific Islands, Captain Sedov - the Arctic ice. Killed whole crew. Vasco da Gama in 1498, barely able to finish his historic voyage to India, losing one hundred sailors from one hundred and sixty of the crew, of the 265 companions of Magellan returned home only 65.
Sailors died of a strange and terrible disease: Read more [...]
In stand equipment includes: Trench (trench stand) and round (round stand) Small area; area for zeroing rifles, pavilion; workshop production targets, office and storage space.
Trenched area of the stand is a rectangle 25X24 m Platform width is greater. Across the width of the site is a trench, which sets 15 throwing machines. Cars are divided into five groups. Each group (three machines) provides one small place (Fig. 101). At a distance of 10 m from the trenches opposite the center of each group of machines installed bollards height 20 - 25 cm with a number of small places. Along the Read more [...]
The lack of food for people who find themselves in an emergency independent existence - a big problem.
To stray far from the village, it will not be as prevalent, as it is hoped to quickly reach out to people. But if the group was forced to autonomy away from roads and settlements, you have to solve the problem of exploration and production of edible plants, animals and fish. In other words, you need to solve the problem of starvation.
During starvation adaptive reactions aimed primarily at reducing energy consumption, reducing the intensity of metabolism. To do this, it is desirable Read more [...]
White fungus, boletus (local name: korovyatnik, clean copy, capercaillie, safecracker) grows in birch, fir, pine and oak forests from June to October, often next to the fly-agaric and anthills. In the food consumed in boiled, fried, pickled or dried.
Has inedible double - gall fungus (bitter taste) and is similar to a poisonous mushroom Satan (lower cap - red).
Pierid usually grows on the edges of young birch forest from August to October. It is highly prized for the delicate flesh and taste good. Is only in the pre-salting after soaking in water or scalding hot water. Very similar to the Read more [...]
a trip to the mountains, including the ascent of the mountain peaks. Broadly speaking, Alexander can be seen as a kind mountain tourism. Modern. A sport - a sport that is associated with the rise of the mountain peaks on the routes diff. complexity. Technically difficult route includes steep and long rock, ice and snow slopes, ridges and gullies, and the diff. combination of these areas.
A special place is occupied in the ascent to the top height. 6,000 m - Sc. A high-rise, a feature-cerned is to stay in conditions of oxygen starvation (see Adaptation height). Kind of sport. A. - Climbing. Read more [...]
Bream (Blicca bjoerkna) - fish, which is often confused with a white bream. Its like bream, AP Czechs could well be called stealth predator, which is the appropriate way of life, as if hiding. The capture of white bream lure and bait anglers are usually surprised, but this fish is typical grab everything that comes into view and her in the teeth. It often takes formless cannibalism, decimating flocks of their own young. Ardor with which bream attacks everything that moves, comparable only with the throng that it suits any food.
"The first gusterku I caught a small river as a teenager. Read more [...]
Close to the summer oak.
Grows in the Caucasus in the warm coastal climate Colchis lowlands and foothills. Does not rise above 1200-1400 meters above sea level. It occurs in small groups or single trees in mixed forests of oak Imereti, zelkova, Caucasian hornbeam and other breeds. Outside of Russia is growing in Asia Minor. Svetolyubiv but young plants are about 20 years old can grow under the forest canopy. The wood is very heavy and sturdy.Oak Imereti
Close to the summer oak. Found only in Colchis, mainly in the lowlands, not rising above 300 meters above sea level. Usually Read more [...]
Herbaceous perennials, 5-60 cm high. DISTRIBUTION: All regions, except the Caucasus. In S. pallida (L) Spreng. flavoiondy found.
Medicinal. Indications – cardio-vascular system in diseases of the heart and blood vessels – Hopes. hours, diseases of the reproductive system: eclampsia – S. pallida.
Melliferous. S. pallida.
Environmental significance. Needs protection from arctica Kryl. et Serg.
In the sea can capture two kinds of perch and sea-ordinary. Externally, they are not much different, but their habitats vary greatly. Marine does not tolerate brackish water and sets them infrequently. So his capture lover - it is extremely rare. But migratory and semi- zander ordinary - A common winter road mining, udyaschego in bays, harbors and estuaries of the seas. Search
Zander ordinary - A traditional catch in the Baltic, Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. Passing perch caught in highly brackish bays, estuarine areas in Azov - almost the entire area. Sea perch can be caught only in Read more [...]
Snow usually den burelomnoy construction in the forest, in the deep snow. Good for snow dens fallen trees with well-developed root system, where between the trunk, roots and earth formed a niche filled with snow.
Comfortable and heaps of several trees, tightly coupled branches together. Such blockages are often formed with vents Sun Depth 2, and even 3 meters
Delves into the den as well as the cave. Trunks and branches serve a role supporting armature that supports the ceiling. It should be noted that in gustolese snow cover unstable, and the cave was built without a skeleton, can easily Read more [...]
Rukzak should be comfortable, roomy, durable and waterproof. He put on the shoulders by the straps. Material for it is easy tarp. Rukzak has three pockets: the average and two long sides. The straps are filed with felt. Weight worn rukzaka should mainly come slightly below the waist. Of great importance is the correct installation of things. Soft things should be laid with a thin layer close to the back. The heaviest items (cans, hooks) to put on the bottom and to the back. Food and equipment that may be needed in the way and at rest stops, it is necessary to stack up.
Besides the Read more [...]
Description: Monoecious large tree up to 30-40 m needles fall off in autumn, gathered in clusters of 15-20 needles. Male cones are pale yellow, oval. Women's - early purple, then light brown, ovoid. Blooms in May. Seeds are on scales seed cones.
Together with pine and cedar forms light coniferous forests. It grows as an impurity in the woods, usually pine in 1, 2, 5, 6, at least 3, 4, botanical and geographical areas. Pure stands almost never occur.
Used in medicine buds and young shoots are gathered in the spring.
Chemical composition. Needles contains vitamin C, essential Read more [...]
Woody vines up to 20 m long. Distribution: European part (south), the Caucasus and the Far East.
Contain anthocyanins and essential fatty acids, and stilbenes (Reniero et al, 1996) established structure. Allocated fatty oil. Detected organic acids to 3% in the fruits of V. coignetiae Pulliat ex Planch, pectin, vitamin C.
Medicinal. Therapeutic action - haemostatic - leaves, cardiotonic - fruits V. coignetiae. Indications - diseases of the digestive system: the diseases of the digestive system - the fruits of V. amurensis Rupr., V. coignetiae, diarrhea - the leaves of V. coignetiae, fruits Read more [...]
Herbaceous perennials and 50 cm high. Distribution: all regions except the Arctic.
Contain alkaloids to 4% in oversight. Part T. lanceolata R. Br, flavonoids to 0.3% in the leaves of T. lanceolata (among them isoflavones) karotiioidy and phenolic glikoeidy ustaiovleiioy structure. Found vitamins C, B-carotene, tocopherols.
Medicinal. Therapeutic action - expectorant - Hopes. Part T. lanceolata (Гос. registry. 2000), antitussive, anthelminthic.
analgesic - T. lanceolata. Indications - diseases of the respiratory system: respiratory failure - the seeds of T. lanceolata (drug tsititon (Mashkovsky, Read more [...]
Single, dvuletnnkn nln herbaceous perennials 10-100 cm tall. Propagation: All.
Thioglycosides contain up to 0.3% in the underground. kardenolndy hours and to 0.2% in the seeds of S. loeselii L., phytosterols, flavonoids and higher fatty acid established structure. Isolated mustard oil to 2.4% NZ seed S. officinale (L.) Scop., fatty oil to 43% NZ seeds called tannins to 7.3% NZ leaves S. loeselii. Glyukoznnolaty detected up to 0.5% in the seeds S. irio L., to 0.1% alkaloids in the flowers called organic acids to 0.4% in the underground. h S. loeselii, triterpene saponins, vitamin C.
Medicinal. Read more [...]
Herbaceous perennials, more water up to 70 cm high. Distribution: all regions except the Arctic.
S. sagittifolia L contains diterpenoids, phytosterols, carbohydrates, as well as aliphatic ketones iy established structure. Flavonoids are found.
Medicinal. Therapeutic action - healing wounds - Subtitle., Oversight. h S. natans Pall., S. sagittifolia, S. trifolia L., astringent - Subtitle. hours, leaves S. sagittifolia, S. trifolia, antiseptic - Hopes. hours, tonic - Subtitle. h S. trifolia. Indications - infections / infestations: with erysipelas - S. sagittifolia, furious - S. natans, Read more [...]
P. oleracea L. - Odioletiik 10-30 cm high. Distribution: European part (except the north), the Caucasus, and the Far East.
Contains alkaloids betapiaiiiy, karotiioidy, phytosterols, triterpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates and moioterpeioidy (Sakai et al., 1996), fatty acids (including higher fatty acids and 25% in the leaves), and phenolic acids established structure. Found vitamins C, E, PP.
Medicinal. Therapeutic action - choleretic, anti - Hopes. hours, fever - seeds, diuretic, antiseptic - Hopes. h (Selected med. plants, 1999). Indications - disease of the reproductive system: the Read more [...]