Birch sap is a clear liquid coming out of cut or broken, the trunks and branches of birch under the influence of root pressure. Sap flow begins with the first spring thaws and continues to bud. Exact separation of birch sap is difficult to establish, because it depends on the weather. For example, if during the March thaw juice has begun to run, and then suddenly hit the cold, it may temporarily stop in.
But usually the juice begins to run around the middle of March, when the snow melts and the buds swell. To determine the start of sap flow enough to go into the woods and make a thin awl prick Read more [...]
Complexity hikes should not exceed the capacity of the participants.Sports travel route, the group, the head of its verified and approved by the commission route. Treat sports groups in the committee voluntarily. But often, novices are guided solely by the desires and feelings, not taking the trouble to understand the experience to them.
In each group there is a camp leader. It can not specifically choose, but it is the actual head and
during the preparation of the campaign and on the route.By being bold initiative, the idea of creating a sports trip, complex, Read more [...]
Behavior. As one of the important features of the behavior described by the gopher should note the presence of his two maxima of daily activities: in the morning before the heat (up to 10-11 h) and in the afternoon, after 15-16 h Normal for gophers biphasic daily activity, according to VS Bazhanov and PV Erofeev (1932) and our observations, most clearly expressed in adult animals in hot weather. But the younger animals are active most of the day, even in extreme heat, the most active and agility they display in the period of settlement. Just before hibernation, when profit gophers accumulates Read more [...]
The biggest danger when released into the extreme situation in any geographical part of the world does not come from larger animals that are trying to avoid the man, but from the small species of wild animals, insects, spiders and snakes disturbed you. Many of them are dangerous not only poison, as by the fact that they are carriers of dangerous diseases and infections transmitted by the bite.
Small rodents can bite when you try to capture, as well as at night, if you're sleeping on grass litter and accidentally disturbed climbed in the rodent.
Mosquitoes are not particularly dangerous Read more [...]
Especially dangerous is suddenly in the icy water. This may occur as a result of the accident aircraft or flying vehicle, the person can fall through the ice while ice fishing or, for example, riding a snowmobile on the frozen river, pond, etc. Our body loses heat when the water temperature is below 33 "C . time stay safe in cold water depends entirely on whether the how quickly cools the body.
That a person experiences in ice water? His breath, squeezing his head like an iron band. His heart pounding, blood pressure rises sharply to a dangerous level. Involuntary breath particularly threatening, Read more [...]
In this group of 15 most important topographical signs, which have been well known.
Sami settlements - villages, villages, farms, villages and cities - complex structures consisting of various buildings and structures. Therefore, there is no simple topographical signs of the village. It consists of a variety of local topographical signs of objects that make up what is called a settlement.
First, it is separate residential and non-residential buildings. They portrayed nemasshtabnym black rectangles (Fig. 68, a). If a building (house) is very large in size, and a large-scale map, the Read more [...]
The fastest way to travel - flight. In the forest, more than anywhere else, winged creatures. It is home to a huge number of birds and bats. However, in the forest razverneshsya. Swift-winged Swifts have no business in a thick tangle of branches. Their long wings will be a hindrance. Good fliers live mainly on the "roof" and fly through the trees. So come and crumbs martins nesting in the trees and giant eagles, harpy-like South American obezyanoedov. But these large hawks, like owls, unlike most birds of prey relatively short wings and a long tail. So flight enough maneuverability Read more [...]
Magazine "Rybachte with us" - the undisputed leader among the fishing publications with the largest circulation in its niche - 117,500 copies - and constant tendency to increase circulation. The focus of the magazine - information about fishing all kinds and forms, directions and features, tips for beginners and professional secrets. Apart from the fact that our readers will learn about fishing and recreation in the world, they also learn about a huge experience of Russian fishermen. The magazine "Rybachte us" Readers will find up to date information on new products manufacturers Read more [...]
Apparently, increased livestock Glavzverovod profitable fur-bearing animals, skins which have demand in Soviet consumers (fox silver-black) or in the external market (mink, sable, arctic fox blue). Reducing the number of raccoon dogs was due to the high cost of cultivation, compared with the prices of their skins in the domestic and foreign markets and increasing the number of these animals in the USSR in the wild. Stable stage nutria because they are semi-breeding is mainly engaged in procurement organizations (Ministry of blanks and Central Council).
In the first five years after the war Read more [...]
In the biological chain complex forest complex is adjacent to the insect important part, without which they could not have handled some predatory or parasitic insects alone. Mass reproduction of pests always attracts birds in it (except for some areas of the taiga, where there is no undergrowth - principal place of nesting). Birds - Genuine friends of the forest, and they have strongly protected.
Worldwide, there are 8,600 species of birds in the country is home to over 700 species. In the woods, parks and gardens in the European part of the country in all seasons, either permanently or temporarily Read more [...]
Trees or shrubs up to 10 m high. Distribution: all regions except the Arctic.
Contain up to 20% flavonoids in fruits P. avium Mill, (among them to 16.5% anthocyanins, catechins), cyanogenic Conn., triterpenoids, phytosterols, carbohydrates and 8% in the fruits of P. maackii (Rupr.) Cote, and phenolic acids, aldehydes, fatty acids, and higher aliphatic hydrocarbons established structure. Highlighted the essential oil to 0.3% of the kidneys and tannins to 8% of P. avium, a fatty oil. Found leykoangotsianndiiy, pectin, organic acids, and 0.6% in the fruit P. maackii, vitamins C, E, F.
Medicinal. Read more [...]
The Republic of Panama - a country in Central America, the Isthmus of Panama between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, bordered by Costa Rica to the west and Colombia to the east. About 50% of the territory is covered by mountains, the highest point - Baru Volcano (3475 m.) Active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. To the east of the Panama Canal begins edge lush jungles and swamps. Area of the country - 77 thousand square meters. km. (With the archipelago Contador).
Climate - The climate is subequatorial, wet, with very small variations in temperature. Monthly average temperature Read more [...]
To the Editor publisher of children's books during the Second World War, a letter came from the front. Lieutenant Gruzdev asked to send his men to the book of life in the forest, about sledopytstve, the use of wild plants. "These books - he wrote - to help the soldier to know the nature of the homeland, the inhabitants of its forests, rivers and meadows. Without basic knowledge of nature is difficult to explore for observation.
Ranger skills and observer knowledge forests help to blend perfectly with the scout. areas. It protects itself nature. He sees everything, he remained invisible. Read more [...]
Annual plant with threadlike yellow or pinkish-yellow stems. The flowers are five-dimensional, white or greenish, on pedicels 2-2.5 mm long, collected at 3-8 in loose inflorescence with lanceolate acuminate bracts, pedicels about equal authenticity. Calyx hemispherical, fleshy, with almost blunt rounded lobes. Corolla campanulate, with open oval-tapered or triangular lobes at the apex slightly curved inward scales are equal in length corolla tube or slightly longer than her, oval, long-fringed. Pestle flattened-spherical ovary and two long unequal columns, exhibiting of the corolla and end Read more [...]
In the past, people whose livelihoods had been hunting, along with meat brought into the family and dead animal skins, as trophy, symbolizing his intelligence, strength, courage. At all times, the hunter was different story about the ability to hunt, but he needed and confirmation to the story - trophy.
In our time, the hunter-fishers and especially a lover sees trophies characterization of their abilities, an assessment of its ability to track down the beast. Hunting has become a means of competition between hunters, private companies and even countries. Became the rule to arrange the exhibition Read more [...]
The Soviet people want to know your beautiful home: they bravely paddle kayaks light Siberian rivers, they are rising to the top of the diamond of their homeland. Noble and thrilling sport - climbing - only in the Soviet Union became available workers. Stakhanovite worker, student-student, Soviet intellectuals use their vacation for a fascinating journey through the mountains and valleys blooming Soviet soil.
Tsarist Russia, the former for many centuries a prison of nations, could grow even mountaineers from among the brave mountaineers. And the old chronicles and archival documents show Read more [...]
Similar to European euonymus. Tree up to 8 m in height and 20 cm in diameter, sometimes grows as a bush.
Widespread in Eastern Siberia, Khabarovsk and Primorye territories, as well as in Korea and China. Growing among the bushes along the river valleys, on the flats, on the banks of lakes and sea coasts. It prefers light soils formed sand deposits. Not tolerate stagnant waterlogged. In the mountain rises no higher than 100 meters frost-and drought-resistant, but poorly tolerate shading, especially at a young age.
Found in the culture throughout the middle belt of the European Read more [...]
One evening came to the source of St. Panteleimon. While a small trickle of water filled the jar, I'm happy I naturally see the flowers. Suddenly, one of the plants began to tremble, so much, as if he suddenly felt cold at this time of evening. Because there was no wind to speak of, I realized that this is the plant itself is showing signs of life. Then a miracle happened! "Chills" lasted about five minutes. Then, right before my eyes, the long, narrow buds began to open, revealing the bright yellow petals that imposingly blossomed into amazing flowers. They were like a small Read more [...]
Annual plant with fibrous roots and ground shoots up to 6 meters Stems thin, highly branched, angular-grooved, short-haired in knots, climbing through a three-chetyrehrazdelnym antennae. Leaves in outline round or ovoid, length and width of 5-10 (15) cm, with five lobes (to separate), with triangular lobes, of which the top stratum, wider and longer than the others, glubokovyemchatye at the base, thin, pale-green, rough, with long petioles. The flowers are dioecious, but the plants monoecious. Pistillate flowers are large stamen. Staminate flowers in racemes, pistillate - 1-2 in the axils of Read more [...]
Perhaps the most widely used and one of the most numerous shorebirds in the North-East of Russia. With different density inhabits all types of continental and island grassy tundra East Siberian, Chukchi and Bering seas, except the Commander Islands (). The region inhabited by Yakut - C. alpina centralis (Buturlin) and Far East - C. alpina sakhalina (Vi-eillot) Dunlin subspecies, which differ not only morphologically, but also by the distribution on the breeding areas. Yakut subspecies spread east to the delta of the Kolyma River, inhabited upland and coastal tundra of the Arctic type. In the Read more [...]