In the Orinoco River (South America) in 1532, gathered a large army of Spaniards - conquerors of the New World. When they are ready to give the Indians a decisive battle. Indian soldiers with arrows and spears were not far away, and seemed to pale-awaited attack. But suddenly bronze people with feathers on their heads lined up and, contrary to custom, silently moved to the Spanish regiments.
In front of a slowly moving front were winding two Indians with large pans in their hands. In a skillet burning embers. From time to time, the Indians were taken from the bags hanging from the side, a Read more [...]
Annual herbs with succulent prostrate shoots up to 100 cm stems ostrogranistye, seated in the ribs strong hooked spines directed downward, making shoots tenacious and allows them to be wedded to trees and scattering of stones. Leaves spatulate-oblong, 1.5-4 cm and 0.4-1.5 cm, shortly acuminate, narrowed at the base, entire or weakly you emchato-toothed, both sides covered with sparse stiff hairs on the edges zhestkoresnitchatye , the lower leaves are alternate, with petioles up to 3 cm Flowering branches spread wide, long (30 cm), with the displaced on top of the large bracts, opposite or contiguous Read more [...]
So, the core problem is the adaptation of the extreme conditions. Mental readaptation in extreme conditions, maladjustment and readjustment to normal conditions of life are subject to regular alternation of stages.
Analysis of the stages of mental readaptation, rehabilitation and exclusion under the influence of psychogenic factors revealed the following. Regardless of whether a person will have to pass a test of nervous and mental stability in the isolation chamber, or do a parachute jump, or make a trip into space, and so on - always clearly distinguished "preparatory phase". Read more [...]
Needless to say, the farther pohodnik from civilization, so it is better. It is for this reason that many avid pohodniki often not satisfied with forays into the village on the pond, but strive to go somewhere far away in the taiga forest. I do not in any way going to condemn these people because am one of them.
However, fans of "savage" campaigns to warn that this kind of sports tourism is an extremely dangerous activity for a person who can not make a fire, not knowing how to navigate in the woods, not familiar with the first aid to himself and companion. and in the Read more [...]
Glorious river Mologa just flows it is not quite there, where it would be necessary. If the float from Bezhetsk, or Maksatikha as I swam this time, the direction of more and more to the northeast, and the wind in August, also in the northeast, so that a continuous mordotyk and rowing tedious, especially if you are on a rubber lodchonke and she sails like a bastard.
And the rest is all very personal, the river is quiet, sparsely populated, on the banks of coniferous forests and different, forest mushrooms and berries, fish in the water, in the sedge and cattail duck. Dozhdichok happens, Read more [...]
It should be borne in mind that the store brand product package is not suitable for hiking. It is designed only to ensure that the buyer could bring them from the store to home. The main container into which products fit for the campaign are cloth bags. Getting ready for a trip, you agree to each of the participants brought out of the house, one, two or three bags. The longer the trip, the more you need products, and hence the pouches. For a great hike or a tourist camp, budget permitting, you can allocate a small sum for the purchase of material and then advance to sew bags. We must remember Read more [...]
Prostrate shrubs to 70 cm long. Distribution: Arctic, the European part of the (North), Western and Eastern Siberia, the Far East.
Triterpenoids contain up to 5.4% in the fruits of O. palustris Pers., Monoterpeioidy, flavonoids (including anthocyanins, katehiiy), carbohydrates to 4.2% in the fruits of O. microcarpus Turcz. ex Rupr., glitsnty, a well as phenolic glycosides, aromatic and fatty acids, aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, and zfiry established structure. Marked tannins to 4.9% of the fruits, fatty oil to 28.1% of the seeds and waxes, to 0.1% from the leaves of O. palustris, essential Read more [...]
C. intybus L. - Herbaceous perennial 50-120 cm tall. Distribution: European part, the Caucasus, Western and Eastern Siberia, the Far East (invasive).
Contains seskviterpeioidy (including sesquiterpene lactones), trnterpenoidy, flavonoids 0.4% in the flowers (including anthocyanins), coumarin 0.2% in the flowers, carotenoids, carbohydrates, acyclic poliatsetileiovye Comm., As well as nitrogen-containing Comm., Phenolic acids, higher fatty acids and their esters established structure. Marked fatty oil to 28.3% of the fruit, tannin 2% of inflorescences, rubber and 3% from the milky juice, essential Read more [...]
Before going on a long winter hike, you need to thoroughly prepare for the night in the woods.
Most importantly do not make the wrong choice of wood for the fire. This is sure to be dead wood, which should blame yourself. Fallen trees - fallen trees - there are always raw, because the fallen trunks covered with snow, they are not the sunlight, no wind is blowing. Dead wood does not burn.
A suhostoiny burn well. The best of them - dried standing spruce trees.
In the pine deadwood easy to get wrong. Sometimes a dead pine-looking quite dry, and in fact had not even dry and will not burn. It Read more [...]
View, described AV Gutsevich (1962) to collect from the vicinity of Ili. Distributed in areas pripoymennyh middle course. Or. Until 1966 its larvae were not known, making it difficult to subgeneric affiliation form.
Field observations and laboratory experiments showed that this late spring monocyclic species. The first adults appear in late April - early May. Then their number increases progressively and remains high throughout June. Since early July, the number of individuals seen to decrease, and in the last days of this month, you can catch only a few, very shabby (age discrimination Read more [...]
If when fishing in still water foam "Fish", "score points" by rocking (games) during the pauses, the rivers in transverse pelting it lacks features such as course presses it to the bottom and wash away any air bubbles. In rivers walleye attract enough strong impulses coming from the bait, weak-current damping. It is clear that from the "porolonki", because of its lower density, the pulses in all cases less than that of silicon lures, so when posting "fish" on the bottom, across or against the current, the originality of the game is no different (although Read more [...]
In the morning I worked with boards, vtaskivaya them on the stove around which to build a wall. Wondered, though they are drying, but were heavier than they were. One edge of the plate was lower than the other, I lifted the end of the board, it would start on this land, and then climbed up to the plate and pulled the board at the end. From the side, probably looked like an ant clinging to match.
When all four boards were up, I care not to knock the edges of the stones, dropped the first board on the wall. I went down into the house and moved it to the entrance. So did the others.
By mid-day, Read more [...]
Despite the fact that the rain forest is found a substantial number of different animals, nutrition is not such a simple matter. Animals in the jungle are very cautious and timid, they are difficult to obtain, although you can try to apply all of the previously described methods of catching the small and medium-sized animals, birds and reptiles. You can catch the snakes, but dangerous enough, without having the necessary skills. Can eat insects, but be sure to follow those recommendations are given in chapter 9 (part 3). The most successful can be catching fish, which is found in abundance Read more [...]
The most complete data on the external and internal structure of the larvae can be found in A. Monchadskogo (1951). We briefly highlight the most important details of their morphology, with taxonomic significance.
Externally mosquito larvae pretty well distinguished from other aquatic organisms. Clearly delineated head, thorax and abdomen are elongated body. Of these, only the ventral part has clearly expressed segmentation, subdivided into nine separate segments. The breast consists of three segments fused together, the existence of which can be judged by the presence of three sets of Read more [...]
A tree 10-20 m tall, with gray smooth bark and shatrovidnoy crown. Young shoots glabrous, first green, then red-brown. Leaves clustered at the ends of the shoots, obovate or oblong in shape, thick, up to 15 cm long and 10 cm wide at the base tapering strongly, sometimes neglubokoserdtsevidnye, margin neglubokolopastnye, with 7-13 pairs of increasingly blunt blades. Top lamina shiny green, glabrous, beneath young leaves pubescent, pubescence then lost. Often leaves remain on the tree all winter dry. It flowers in May - early June. In the second half of September, mature acorns that have shirokotsilindricheskuyu Read more [...]
In the event of an emergency autonomous existence can bring great benefit in time diluted stake. It will give an opportunity to warm up in cold areas, cook hot food and drink, which is especially important if you have a group of wounded. Fire - it is also a psychological pacifier, from which emanates hope, confidence in the successful outcome of the case. In short, to be able to build a fire in any place and in any weather conditions is important.
But there are times when none of the victims is not lighters, matches or they are hopelessly dampened, ie No one element of the "triangle Read more [...]
the health and fitness of tourists, carried out in the period predpohodny (doctor) and in the field (one of the participants of the tour).
Mk. in a campaign can reveal early signs of fatigue, thus preventing the associated nezhelat. consequences (missteps, injuries, accidents, etc.). 8 march max. burden falls on the cardiovascular and muscular systems of the cardio-vascular system is determined by the heart rate, and muscle - in power brush, measured dynamometer. Measurements are carried out in the morning and evening, observing the same conditions, because Read more [...]
Evergreen shrub up to 1.5 m with gray-brown rooting shoots. The leaves are leathery, short, linear-oblong, 1.5-5 cm long, 0.2-0.8 cm wide, with curled edges down, dull-green, wrinkled, with a waxy coating, bottom rusty tomentose beneath. Flowers are white, the Five diameter of 2 cm at the ends of the branches are gathered in umbellate brush. A plant with a strong camphor smell intoxicating.
Ledum palustre distributed throughout the European part of the USSR, in Siberia, the Far East, growing in swamps, wet pine forms a large bush, blooms from May to August, bears fruit until frost. The Read more [...]
Encampment should be as easily accessible to strangers - or should it be do so.
The camp is protected by so-called "snail". This haphazard arrangement of mines, among which we can not pass directly. Way is possible only by a learned-fighters spiral "snail", which apparently is not marked on the ground.
Approaches to the camp protected by mines signal which transmits light and audible alarm when triggered.
Elektrosignalizatsii installed system. Enemy soldier selected to the camp, touches a wire, an alarm contact - in the dugout before the attendant lamp lights.
The Read more [...]
Magazine "Rybachte with us" - the undisputed leader among the fishing publications with the largest circulation in its niche - 117,500 copies - and constant tendency to increase circulation. The focus of the magazine - information about fishing all kinds and forms, directions and features, tips for beginners and professional secrets. Apart from the fact that our readers will learn about fishing and recreation in the world, they also learn about a huge experience of Russian fishermen. The magazine "Rybachte us" Readers will find up to date information on new products manufacturers Read more [...]