For a group of 4-8 people is enough to have a saw and two axes - one tourist, with a wooden or metal rubberised handle, the other - a carpenter, a better long-ax - suchkorub.
Tourist hatchet used for smaller works, tents, fish cutting and carpentry - for equipment camps indiscriminately debris, firewood, construction smokehouse, etc. For these purposes intended and two-handed saw.Before you hit the road, axes, and to sharpen the saw should be good to do for them from the bright fabric covers with drawstrings, and ax handles and saw paint in bright red: so they will be more visible in the grass Read more [...]
In ex. Virgin territory in marmot found rikketsni Burnet (Karulina, 1961 b). There is speculation that a few centuries ago, when lazybones was widely distributed in the steppes of Europe, there are natural foci of plague (Gromov et al, 1965). In Northern and Central Kazakhstan marmot plague disease were detected.
In the spring of 1959 in the south of the lakes Tselinograd mass mortality water rats (probably from tularemia). In this same period of the lake. Shoindykul neranenyh found two well-fed, the recently dead marmot. The cause of death is the same as that of the rat, as such we will Read more [...]
Sunglasses protect the eyes from the action of the sun when driving on snow and firn slopes and are necessary even in cloudy weather. Points are green or yellow or smoked glass in a metal frame. In the frame should have openings for ventilation, otherwise the points are covered with perspiration. The edges of the frame covered with leather or cloth. Climber must have two points of Lara, one of them with a lighter glass. Take a second pair of glasses as a spare in case of breakage, as you can easily go blind if you go without glasses. Read more [...]
Typical European tree. Does not go north of Vologda, Kirov, Perm, in the east comes to the Urals. It grows in the forest and steppe zones, rises in the mountains of the Crimea and the Caucasus. The steppe zone is formed on the beams so called bayrachnye forests, sometimes found in floodplains. In the forest, oak forms a small compact crown, but in freedom spreads its thick branches twisting away to the side, closing times, like a tent, almost a quarter of a hectare. Live 300-400 years, reaching a height of 40 m, with a trunk diameter of more than 1 m Some trees live to be 500 or even 1,000 Read more [...]
Gone camping, travel and other cases is often a need to determine the distances to reach objects, measuring their length and height, to determine the width of a river or other obstruction, and in determining the height of the tree, in the calculation of the remaining path to the final goal, etc.
In military practice, where the calculations always have to use relations between angular and linear quantities, instead of degrees of measures used artillery (linear), a simple and convenient for quick priblizhepnyh calculations. As a unit of angular measures gunners take a central angle of the circle, Read more [...]
In appearance can distinguish three age groups: piglets (yearlings), pigs (two-year) and adults. Particularly easy to distinguish pigs and adults, it is harder to distinguish pigs as large gilt can be confused with a pig.
The pigs are smaller, lighter colored adults (light color remains until the year) and a long-legged. In pigs (in the 2nd year of life) developed withers, grows hair along the back. Adult animals heavier pigs, stubble on his back grows stronger. This is particularly manifested in contrast bulls.
In the field, distinguished from adult male pigs is possible, and not only Read more [...]
The surest way to disinfect water - it boiling at least 8 - 10 minutes. If the liquid is taken from suspicious or highly contaminated source (which is allowed only in extreme cases), simmer for half an hour it should.
For more antiseptic effect (depending on location) to the water boiling, you can add:
- Young branches of spruce, pine, fir, cedar, juniper - 100-200 g per bucket. Deposited on the bottom of the brown, insoluble precipitate can not drink. - The bark of willow, willow, oak, beech, birch bark young - 100 150 g in a bucket of water and boil for 20-40 minutes, or pressing in warm water Read more [...]
Status. The small species with relatively stable habitat and relatively stable numbers.
Distribution. The range is extensive and covers the Central Plains, Central and South Asia, Kazakhstan, and lives in the North Caspian. In the Saratov region in the Volga distributed through whose territory the border north-western part of the range. Early in the last century along the left bank. Volga reached the latitude of Wolski (Orlov, 1929). Later, the border area has moved considerably to the south, already in the 1950s. AS Stroganov (1954) did not celebrate this kind of north p. Eruslan. Studies Read more [...]
In May 1975, the newspaper "Izvestia" put a message saying that the floating buttercup fills the Rhine. His extensive colonies appeared on the upper Rhine between Basel and Lake Constance. The dissemination process began in 1970, a favorable environment for it is water that contains a lot of phosphoric acid.
One major European rivers - the Rhine polluted by industrial waste to the extent that it nearly disappeared fish. But thriving poisonous buttercup. Drop of his juice on your skin, causing redness at first, then boil. The book Johann Samael Heller naturalist XVIII century., About Read more [...]
Bream and white bream, above all, different lifestyle and diet. Small bream, white bream that is fed on insect larvae and small crustaceans, a large share of its diet are plant components. The food supply of small bream varies little throughout the year. That is why the white bream fishing is quite simple and dobychliva. Scheme malovariantna catching, and success is determined by the choice of fishing grounds. Bream, white bream, unlike in summer, almost completely powered by small mussels, worms, and even young fish and crustaceans in winter eats, very rarely - larvae (bloodworms) and only Read more [...]
Episode 6: Death Zone
In 2006, the Discovery Channel made a documentary film about how a group of climbers trying to climb Mount Everest. It is a fascinating story about people who want to conquer the highest peak in the world. Climbing has become their most severe test in life. In 2007, the team leader Russell Brice again hit the road. This time, he took a few newcomers, including 71-year-old Japanese man Katsuske Yanagisawa, who dreams of becoming the oldest person to climb Mount Everest. Second attempt to make a bodybuilder asthmatic Mogens Jensen from Denmark and Hollywood rider Tim Medvets. Read more [...]
Annual plant height 5-35 cm, erect, usually branched, reddish or brownish stems, covered with simple curly hairs pointing downwards. The lower leaves are opposite, middle and upper almost opposite, cuneate-ovate, obtuse, with 5-7 sharp teeth on each side (at the time of flowering plants in the lower part are leafless) bracts alternate, rounded, with a width greater than height, with sharp teeth. All the leaves are covered with short stalk glandular hairs, especially on nerves and on the edge of the plate, and the straight bristles, the proportion of glandular and bristly hairs in different individuals Read more [...]
Inhabiting the Arctic, people are faced with extremely harsh natural conditions, to survive in ways that were only learning to resist the cold - worst enemies in these latitudes. The cold was brutal teacher, not giving time for reflection and experimentation. But unkind nature of the North, and mercilessly punished for the mistakes, and made sure that the man had in abundance of animal hides for clothing and snow, suitable for building houses, and seal oil to maintain the fire. For millennia, tribes in the Arctic, has successfully used it not so scarce resources.
People at high latitudes, migrating, Read more [...]
Fig. 8. The rise on hinges with a knot Prussika.
Lifted by rope. We'll review the two basic ways to lift a rope: the rise unassisted Prussika hinged and lift with help for single and double stirrup.
In these ways, and while the climbs on a rock, ice walls and, most important, when drawing climbers from cracks in the cases where the failed there climber was seriously damaged and can move independently.
The rise on hinges with a knot Prussika (Fig. 8). On Read more [...]
Perennial herb 15-50 cm tall stems erect, simple or slightly branched at the top, belovoylochnye. Leaves twice pinnately deeply into lanceolate or linear-lanceolate prickly share, sessile, half, dark green above, beneath gray or almost white because tomentose pubescence. Globular inflorescence blue overall, with a diameter of 2.5-4 cm Baskets monochromatic. Fruits - cylindrical achene with pappus of hulled bristles. Blooms from June to August, the fruits ripen in September and October.
Predominantly European-Central Asian species. In Russia, found in the southern half of the European part, Read more [...]
Natural water (except the spring and clean water from mountain streams) must be cleaned and disinfected. Surface water sources (rivers, lakes) are often not suitable for drinking, as they may contain pathogens, pesticides and other toxic. substances. In connection with this preferred groundwater. If the water comes from an untrusted source, it should be boiled for at least 30 minutes. It is not recommended to take water directly from lakes or swamps. On the lower shore in several. m of water necessary to dig a hole, and when it is filled with water, gently scoop up the water. After repeating Read more [...]
You can see the line and support before reaching it, column. Become with the target. Estimate the distance from themselves to the column of 100 m length of this mind is transferred to the area between the column and the support given that distance seems to be shorter than it is further away from the observer is delayed. In this case, the first segment was found to be the second. Thus, the distance from you to support is 200 m (Fig. 25).
Define art distance in this way can only be achieved by exercise. Mistakes can be very rough with a sharp change of circumstances, such as the transition Read more [...]
Maximizing the benefits of significant beaver resources directly - as a provider of valuable products and indirectly - as edificator environment is impossible without thought of an appropriate management. In turn, the choice of a more complex, intensive forms of such an economy is determined by: 1) the need for maintenance of beaver settlements in all the places where they live to have the right conditions, and 2) the need to fish populations in whole or restrict their activities in areas where significant damage is caused to land reclamation systems and road facilities, with appropriate devices. Read more [...]
Dress code - storm suit, gloves, hat, high boots, safety helmet.
Personal equipment - ASC, two carbine repshnur (5 m), the loop for the descent.
Equipment group - rope core (3 x 30 m), the rope supporting (1 x 30 m), 5 rifles, 1 - 2 hammers, axes, poles (2 x 3 m), jumpers repshnur (6 x 5 m), sleeping bag, first aid kit (number of main rope is taken depending on the nature of the place of employment).
Introductory talk: The repetition of previously studied methods of transportation of the victim with the available tools (the easy way). Carried out at the order of the first return trip, Read more [...]
Bear Grylls served in the SAS special forces is an expert on survival in extreme environments. In these films, he shows how to survive the dangers of nature itself. Bear shows survival skills are the most extreme way. Throw it out of a helicopter from a height of 2000 meters and in addition it has a parachute carrying only a knife and flint. He has to find food, water, direction, shelter. On the way Beara will rise: scorpions karakurt, cobras, rhinos, piranhas, sharks, elephants, bears, lions, and the unbearable cold and hellish heat.
In expeditions Survival Bear Grylls always accompanies Read more [...]