﻿Others | The survival encyclopedia - Part 45

## Economic evaluation of the role of the beaver

As the growth in the number of beavers has serious opponents of land considered useful addition to the above qualitative and environmental analysis proves conclusively contribution beaver as edificator environment, to the possible economic evaluation of its activities. It should be noted that this is associated with large? difficulties, not least because that assessment of natural resources is not a single methodology. In addition, planning and economic calculations have not yet oriented to the conservation of natural, resources. Therefore consciousness threat of depletion, and in the very Read more [...]

## Driving on snowy plain in a few days

Close the skin around the eyes something dark, something to reduce glare reflected off the white snow. If you have no special protective glasses, make them out of scrap materials: paper, cardboard, rubber, film, tree bark, etc. If a manufactured mask (glasses), you will be cut two holes the size of an eye, it is almost no protection from bright sunlight reflected from snow, you do not get. Better to make the glasses slots as two cross slits in the form a "plus." In this case, reduce the possibility of the review areas, but ensure complete protection of the eyes.Never make eye protectors Read more [...]

## Distances on the angular size of an object

Approximate determination of the distance can be made to the angular size of the visible objects if their linear value we known in advance. Visible or apparent magnitude of an object depends on the angle of view or the angular size of the object, which is reduced to the extent it is deleted from our eyes, and increases as it approaches the observer. If you know the height or the size of the object P, value H and everyday items distance L to it, you can determine the distance D to the object P on a formula derived from the following ratio:If we take the ratio of L / H for a constant value of 100, Read more [...]

## Devils Potion

The story about the "magic" Plants of. Solanaceae would be incomplete without saying anything about "God damn grass", "bloody potion" - tobacco and its deadly poisonous alkaloid nicotine. "Believers grass this very revered curse and put in a grave and unforgivable sin of its use. Happens when someone in their hut to smoke, they smoke after Troy day continually frankincense, and where a few crumbs fall of it, then those are the three day scrape and wash the place signified, that of not only him but the smell of perfume or shalt bring up forever ". So once Read more [...]

## Magazine Fly» № 2, 2004

Magazine "Fly" - Russia's only agency from fishing to artificial flies. Fly fishing - One of the oldest methods of fishing. This beautiful, versatile and sporty fishing is rapidly gaining popularity among a wide range of fishing in the country and provides everything you need to catch a variety of species of fish in different ponds. Pike, perch, pike, whitefish, trout, grayling, trout, salmon - and it's only a small fraction of the fish that you can catch fly fishing. The journal publishes articles in the world's most renowned experts on fishing the artificial fly, current Read more [...]

## Magazine Rybachte us» № 7, 2009

Magazine "Rybachte with us" - the undisputed leader among the fishing publications with the largest circulation in its niche - 117,500 copies - and constant tendency to increase circulation. The focus of the magazine - information about fishing all kinds and forms, directions and features, tips for beginners and professional secrets. Apart from the fact that our readers will learn about fishing and recreation in the world, they also learn about a huge experience of Russian fishermen. The magazine "Rybachte us" Readers will find up to date information on new products manufacturers Read more [...]

## Cumin

Netsvetuschee plant caraway (Carum carvi) is very similar to the carrot. Lower leaves on long stalks, the upper short, they are compressed to flowering. Petioles of the upper leaves expanded into the vagina. Leaf blade twice or three times almost feathery. Inflorescence - cyme with 8-16 unequal rays, 4-8 cm in diameter, no wrappers, obertochek too. Umbrellas are small, about 1 cm in diameter. Petals white or pinkish. Cumin - a common plant meadows prefer slightly damp places, blooms in June and July, the seeds ripen in August and September. The fruit of cumin - dvusemyanki that drying is Read more [...]

## Cotoneaster polyanthous

Shrub up to 2 m in height with thin, curved arched branches. Young shoots with thin greenish-yellow hairs, later glabrous, shiny, reddish-brown. Leaf shape varies from broadly ovate to elliptic, top leaves bare bottom with pressed soon izrezhivayuschimsya pubescence, dark green in summer, autumn yellow and purple. In June, there are white, 1 cm in diameter, flowers in 6-20-flowered plates. The fruits are bright red, spherical or oblong-obovate, up to 1 cm in diameter, usually with 2 fused bones. It grows on rocks and rocky slopes of the Tien Shan and Pamir-Alai, Kopet Dag. It also occurs in Read more [...]

## Oduro-grass

Some species of Datura - Datura alba and Datura metel - has long had a bad reputation in India. There even existed a profession "Datura poisoners." Poisoner gently through the tube is blown powder datura seeds sleeping in the nose. The man fell asleep and then tightened everything of value that was in the house, quietly carried away. Datura poisoning causes the same as henbane. Datura - Annual herbaceous plant. For temperate zones of Europe and Asia typical view D. stramonium (Datura vulgaris) in Iran is rising D. tatula. Another type - D. innoxia, a native of Mexico, is widely Read more [...]

## Common centaury

Two-or perennial herb with erect quadrangular stem up to 30 cm at the top forked branching. The bulk of the leaves collected in the rosette, but there are leaves on the stem. Basal leaves oblong-ovate, with short petioles, stem, opposite, lanceolate, sessile, pyatinervnye unclear. Flowers in few-flowered corymbose apical buds. Calyx tubular, 4-6 mm long, cut into five teeth. Corolla pink, spaynolepestny with tube length of 1 cm and a flat contour of 1 cm diameter fruit - linear cylindrical boxes with numerous brownish seeds. Blooms from June to September, the fruits ripen in August oktyabre.Evraziatskoe Read more [...]

## Clay deserts

Clay deserts are widespread in all continents. This is huge, stretching for dozens of kilometers lifeless areas covered smooth as a table, a solid layer of clay, cracked four-and hex tiles and similar to a honeycomb. They differ from the sand much lower mobility and poorer water properties. Their surface greedily absorbs precipitation, but the upper swell when wet quickly and stop leak. Moist is only the top layer of 2-5 cm with the onset of drought it dries quickly. But if in the clay deposits have the sand, the water permeability of soil increases, and they formed a larger supply of water. Read more [...]

## See maps

Obtaining necessary for the card should be good to study it: set the year compilation and publication of maps; familiarize itself with the conventional signs, know the magnetic declination, which is usually imposed for frame maps, determine the scope, determine the cross section of the relief, explore scale congestion and allocate greater visibility area of interest with colored pencils: forest - green, water - blue, roads - brown, bridges and causeway - black, various landmarks - red, etc. Numerical and graphical scale maps are usually placed below the map, under the frame. If for some reason Read more [...]

## Cheeked ground squirrel — citellus erythrogenys brandt. Reproduction and growth of young

Sexual maturity occurs ruddy ground squirrels to the age of 11 months, although young later litters have time to grow until frost only half the growth in adults. Such individuals, even without sufficient fat reserves, with a relatively long hibernation and next spring are involved in reproduction. Hong animals occurs soon after you wake up from their winter slumber. The male sex organs in etoschvremya markedly increased. For example, according to the MD Zverev (1930), in Western Siberia testes 23 gophers, caught in the midst of heat (1 April - 10 May), reached a value of 14X9 mm and ranged Read more [...]

## Camouflage

For most animals, the most important thing to be imperceptible. Equally interested in this and vegetarians and carnivores. Suits them out of sight of any enemy or victims. To do this, you first need to wear not stand out against the surrounding vegetation, would have to say, the protective coloration. Forest - Green sea. This color is dominant in any forest. Not surprisingly, many forest dwellers, especially living in the trees, where escape from persecution, much more difficult than on land, are particularly interested in how to become invisible, so dress up in appropriate clothing. Green Read more [...]

## Acacia silver

Under natural conditions, increases in the south-east coast of Australia. In Russia introduced the culture of the XIX century. and is common in gardens and parks of the Black Sea coast, here is wild and forms dense thickets on the coastal slopes. An evergreen tree up to 25 m in height with okruglotsilindricheskoy crown, trunk covered with gray-brown bark with longitudinal cracks. The leaves are delicate, double paripinnate, up to 18 cm long, silvery-green. From the main petiole depart 13-25 pairs of lateral stems, each of which carries a 3-40 pairs of narrow linear small (up to 3 mm long) leaves. Read more [...]

## Carp

It turned out that these fish may well be caught on amateur gear. Tips for catching grass carp using different: fine filamentous algae, dandelion leaves, and in some ponds and cake with corn, and other well carp nozzle. I want to share the characteristics of grass carp fishing on young cucumber. With this way of catching I met in the Transcarpathian region, where, at the invitation of friends, went fishing with trout. Since then apply this nozzle regularly, and it works equally well in the Carpathian, Kiev, and Kuban ponds. In other places, check the effectiveness of young cucumbers could Read more [...]
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## Campfires, fireplaces, obtaining and maintaining fire

As soon as the equipment shelter or stationary camp, you need to think about the fire - not only for heating but also for drying clothes, cooking, scaring wild animals. Kindling a fire in any weather, at any time of the year - this is probably the kind of art. And kindling a fire without matches - the most difficult in the extreme situation, because of the presence of fire life depends: for the fire not only heat, but also the opportunity to give a signal of distress. Therefore, before proceeding to describe the fires and wood they use, and how to incite, we must address the issue of making Read more [...]
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## Burdock, or Bur

Biennial (sometimes perennial) herbaceous plant with large fleshy taproot and erect thick ribbed stem height from 60 cm to 2 m, arachnoid-pubescent and branching at the top. Leaves cordate-ovate, very large, reaching lengths of up to 0.5 meters and nearly as wide, the bottom of grayish tomentose pubescence, with long petioles. Total inflorescence corymbose. The flowers are tubular, bisexual, lilac-purple, gathered in almost spherical inflorescences basket diameter of 3-4 cm, glabrous wrappers are composed of rigid leaflets provided with clinging hooks, internal bracts usually not painted, rarely Read more [...]
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## Brief information about the anatomy and physiology. Internal organs

The organs of the head and neck include the brain, upper respiratory tract, pharynx, esophagus, trachea. The organs of the chest include the breast part of the esophagus, heart, lungs, great vessels (aorta, the upper and lower hollow vein). The organs of the abdominal cavity include the abdominal part of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, spleen, kidneys and reproductive organs. All the internal organs are well supplied with blood and have a large number of nerve endings, so their damage leads to abundant internal or external bleeding. Damage to the hollow organs such Read more [...]

## Rhododendron Schlippenbach

Branched spreading deciduous shrub up to 2 m in height. The bark of old branches light gray, brown shoots, fluffy, rzhavozhelezistye. Broad obovate leaves that reach 10 cm long and 5 cm wide, usually crowded, 4-5 at the ends of shoots, have a rounded or truncate the top and wavy, one-piece, the bottom of the ciliary margin. When leafing thin, light green, then becomes more dense, dark green, and in the autumn full of lots of bright colors - from bright yellow to pink and purple-red. The leaves remain on the bush until late autumn. The flowers are collected but 3-6 in umbellate guards are dismissed Read more [...]

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