Others | The survival encyclopedia - Part 47


Weasel family. Badger

Badger has a clumsy, wide body, an elongated head, short legs. Body length of an average of about 70 cm (old males sometimes reaching 90 cm) tail - 25 cm hair on the back and sides rough, high, bristly, silvery-brownish-gray color, casings - lower and rare blackish color but lighter head. On either side are two black stripes. Badgers are found in all regions of the European part of the USSR, Siberia, the Far East, except for the northern territories. These animals are found in nearly all the countries of Europe and in much of Asia. The main areas of distribution are: the European part of Read more [...]
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Water barriers

Mountain rivers repeatedly blocked the way tourist groups. At times, they even made a raging torrent experienced hikers up on further travels, sometimes forcing them to wait for day, two, three. But not all have the courage to turn back time to wait. And then there is an accident ... Features mountain river due primarily to its power source (melting snowfields and glaciers). This affects the following characteristics of the river: 1. Change in the power flow. In the upper reaches of the power flow, and the depth of the channel is relatively small. The bed has an abundance of large Read more [...]
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Rhode SWERTIA L. — Swertia.

Herbaceous perennials, 10-150 cm tall. Distribution: European part (east), the Caucasus, Western and Eastern Siberia, the Far East. Contain xanthones, alkaloids and 0.4% in the underground. h S. iberica Fisch. S. et Mey., flavonoids to 5.2% in the stems, leaves and flowers of S. iberica, carbohydrates and established structure. Found coumarins, triterpene sapoiiiy. Medicinal. Therapeutic action - stimulating appetite, anthelmintic, tonic - Hopes. h S. obtusa Ledeb., S. perennis L., wound healing in veterinary medicine - S. iberica. Indications - diseases of the digestive system: the Read more [...]
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Universal quot;snastochka-trapquot;

Author of the "trap" of Moscow angler Pavlov. The design is different from most of its counterparts miniaturization and reliability. It should be noted that it is effective at catching on as a 'soft' bait of any configuration, and when fishing on natural baits. When fishing on natural bait preference should still give uzkotelym fish. Snastochka ideal foam and "fish" and to silicone vibrohvostam (Fig. 85). It captures and holds them tightly at all loads. So the author is not accidentally called her "a trap."'Small fish"Impaled thus becomes interesting Read more [...]
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Types of tents

Types of tents to the destination. The starting point in choosing a tent is its purpose. I would point out a few basic classes: - Tents for tourism of the ordinary - a tent for tourist rallies and marches weekend - tents for trailering (camping) - tents for winter and extreme hiking - tents "special purpose." Our goal - to select tent just for tourism "Normal difficulty", so describe the other only in passing. Tents tursletov and PVD - is the so-called tent old type - dvuhskatki with awning. It is a simple tent, which are still in demand due to its price. Ridge tent for Read more [...]
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Tree of Death

Early on in the colonial wars of troops of the East India Company met with one of the oldest types of chemical weapons - poisoned arrows, spears and clubs. Mysterious poison for arrows intrigued conquerors, and in the middle of the XVII century. Dutch instructed botanist H. Rumpf reveal their secret. Thanks to Mr. Rumpf of upas, trees giving poison for arrows, began to spread the most incredible rumors. This happened because the Javanese was much more profitable to frighten Europeans than to reveal the secret of extraction of juice Anchar. Therefore, Mr. Rumpf warned that closer to the tree Read more [...]
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Orientation on the trail

A man whose work is closely related to nature, usually of particular visual acuity of observation and memory, learns to detect invisible to other features of the surroundings. Signs by which he reads Nature, called tracks, and the man himself - a tracker. Techniques sledopytstva fluent in taiga hunters, desert shepherds, herders, guards. The doctrine of the tracks is called trassologii (from the French word «trace» - trail) And examines the origin of the various signs and change them from various causes, the rules of discovery and exploration. Trassologiya distinguishes three groups Read more [...]
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Thermal state and water-salt metabolism at high ambient temperatures

In humans and other mammals advanced body temperature is kept constant through the mechanisms of thermoregulation, which ensure normal functioning of the organism. Increased body temperature leads to significant shifts metabolism and function of organs and systems. When the temperature of 2 ° is there are significant abnormalities in the cardiovascular system and a noticeable decrease in performance. Raising it to a 4 - 5 ° and more incompatible with the life of the organism. Interest is the relationship of body temperature to changes in ambient temperature. The experiments were performed Read more [...]
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Mullen mealy

Biennial, sometimes perennial herbaceous plant from 50 to 160 cm, with spindle-shaped root. Stems are erect, ribbed, branched, like all plants, hairy tiny grayish stellate hairs. The leaves are ovate to oblong-lanceolate, basal and lower stem with short petioles, mid and high-seat, beneath densely pubescent, obtuse or acute, crenate on the edge. The flowers are collected in bundles of 2-7, which at the tips of stems form a branched inflorescence-pyramidal panicles. Calyx deeply dissected into five triangular-lanceolate lobes. Corolla yellow, with a diameter of 2 cm, rotate, slightly irregular, Read more [...]
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Rhode ARCTIUM L. — Mug.

Biennials and 200 cm high. Distribution: all regions except the Arctic. Contain seskviterpeioidy (including seskviterpeiovye lactones), di-and triterpenoids, flavonoids and 18% in the leaves A. lappa L., lignans, phytosterols, carbohydrates to 21% in the leaves of A. lappa, acyclic poliatsetilenovye Comm. (Including sulfur), and phenolic acids, higher fatty acids and aliphatic aldehydes established structure. Highlighted the essential oil to 0.2% of the Subtitle. hours and tannins to 8% of the leaves of A. lappa, fatty oil to 21.4% of the fruit of A. minus (Hill) Bemh., rubber. Detected Read more [...]
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Steppe marmot

Status. View, the state is due to the measures taken or because of natural population trends is safe, but is not subject to industrial application and for its populations requires constant monitoring. Distribution. At the beginning of XX century. was widely distributed in most of the steppe zone. The range extends from Podolia in the west to the left bank of the Irtysh in the east. By the middle of the last century due to plowing of virgin lands and unregulated fishing area was divided into separate isolated settlements that are confined to the "inconvenient" land and protected conservation Read more [...]
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The final emotional stress

During long trips submarines we have noticed that for 2-3 days before the sailing sailors became fussy, emotionally strained. They all thought that over time has slowed. There was a hurry as fast as possible to get to the shore. Emotional tension during the final period of the job and can clearly be seen in astronauts during the flight. V. Sevastyanov recalls that a few days before returning to Earth "originated something on the brain all, most would end the flight, would rather have on the Earth. Waiting for the end of the flight times were very slow. Mood deteriorated" 316. Read more [...]
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The conservation of life in a shipwreck in the ocean or the sea

Disaster in the world's oceans can occur for various reasons. This collision of vessels, and hit the reef, and the result is a severe storm or typhoon. This can happen during a fire in a collision with a stray mines during World War II. Modern maritime statistics relentless - every half hour SOS alarm sounds every day and killed at least one vessel. But it happens that over the vast ocean distress and airliners. In this case, the passengers of the aircraft have very little time to leave the cabin, as the aircraft afloat from 10 to 25 minutes, depending on the design and type of aircraft. Read more [...]
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That the horizon

Our hero Tom Sauer participated in the transatlantic rowing race has experienced many adventures, just not feed a shark and, to cope with all the misadventures, like in the movie, dressed in a tuxedo and had a couple of cocktails. Transatlantic rowing race Atlantic Challenge Race, from 1997 is held every two years. The race starts in the Canary Islands. Passing about 3000 nautical miles, participants will finish in Barbados. The race involved nonprofessional athletes, but without the semi-training (this is at least) there is nothing to do. Son Derk Sauer - the founder of our publishing house Read more [...]
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Teasel bristly

Biennial plant height from 40 to 150 cm, with a ribbed faceted erect branching stems. The leaves are opposite, oblong, pointed, serrated edge, ciliated, basal - whole, with petioles, stem - sessile, pinnatifid. Flowers are in terminal inflorescence - spherical head diameter of 2-3 cm Involucre lanceolate, acuminate. Bracts are similar in shape to the wrapper leaves, elongated greenish-black bristly beard reaching scales with 15-20 mm in length. The flowers are yellowish-white, corolla tube length and four-limb. Stamens four. Fruit - achene. Blooms in June and July, the fruits ripen in July Read more [...]
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Rhode SETARIA P. Beauv. — Foxtail.

Annuals, herbaceous perennials, 10-100 cm tall. Distribution: all regions except the Arctic. In the experiment, the broth Subtitle. h urine output increases by 48%, the leaves reduce urine output by 6%. Contain alkaloids, carbohydrates, and higher fatty acid established structure. Allocated fixed oil to 6.2% of the fruits S. viridis (L.) P. Beauv. Discovered polysaccharides vntamii C. Medicinal. Therapeutic action - healing wounds - Subtitle. hours, benefits, diuretic - Hopes. h S. viridis. Indications - kidney and urinary tract: renal diseases and bladder diseases of the digestive system: Read more [...]
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Survival in cold climate areas

ARCTIC Climate and weather The air temperature. Except for the area of glaciers and sea ice-covered, the air temperature in the Arctic summer is usually above 18 ° C. In the winter it sometimes reaches -56 ° C, and increases to a maximum of 0 ° C. In the sub-Arctic regions of the summer is short, with temperatures above 10 ° C. The coldest winter in the Northern Hemisphere.North Pole - it is the center of the ice in the Arctic realm where nothing and life is impossible. Temperature up to -52 °, the wind speed is 100 km per hour. The ice surface is very uneven, it is covered with cracks, Read more [...]
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Subversion sailors

Many sea travel, especially in the polar regions, replete with facts the tragic death of seafarers - not in battle, not in the waves of the ocean in a storm, and from lack of food in some mysterious substances. Thus died the Barents captain in the New Earth, Commander Bering - the Pacific Islands, Captain Sedov - the Arctic ice. Killed whole crew. Vasco da Gama in 1498, barely able to finish his historic voyage to India, losing one hundred sailors from one hundred and sixty of the crew, of the 265 companions of Magellan returned home only 65. Sailors died of a strange and terrible disease: Read more [...]
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Stationary equipment stand

In stand equipment includes: Trench (trench stand) and round (round stand) Small area; area for zeroing rifles, pavilion; workshop production targets, office and storage space. Trenched area of the stand is a rectangle 25X24 m Platform width is greater. Across the width of the site is a trench, which sets 15 throwing machines. Cars are divided into five groups. Each group (three machines) provides one small place (Fig. 101). At a distance of 10 m from the trenches opposite the center of each group of machines installed bollards height 20 - 25 cm with a number of small places. Along the Read more [...]
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Finding and cooking

The lack of food for people who find themselves in an emergency independent existence - a big problem. To stray far from the village, it will not be as prevalent, as it is hoped to quickly reach out to people. But if the group was forced to autonomy away from roads and settlements, you have to solve the problem of exploration and production of edible plants, animals and fish. In other words, you need to solve the problem of starvation. During starvation adaptive reactions aimed primarily at reducing energy consumption, reducing the intensity of metabolism. To do this, it is desirable Read more [...]
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