Black currants

Berry shrub with fluffy blond shoots and dark green foliage, are widely distributed throughout the European part of Russia, the Caucasus, and Siberia to Lake Baikal. Grows in moist floodplains of rivers and streams, under a canopy of wet spruce or hardwood forests. Leaves 3-5-lobed, with a pleasant odor, coarse, bottom with resinous glands, pubescent on veins noticeable. At the end of May - beginning of June there drooping lilac brush, up to 1 cm in diameter, bell-shaped flowers. In late July, ripen very tasty and fragrant berry contains high concentrations of vitamins (C, B1, B2, A). Berry Read more [...]
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In the Valley of Suchan

At 17 hours 30 minutes took the camp by the river. Onset is usually Bivouacking work. Unzipped the bag, from which poured countless cans and boxes of food, and took up the tent. Tent first hung on the main longitudinal rope, tied to two trees, and then branches to the ground flooring, they - the grass, the grass - skins, finally - a blanket and sheets. When the bed is ready, the side walls of the tent ropes are pulled, four on each side. Ropes attached to stakes driven into the ground. The edges of the tent carefully podgibayutsya inside to not penetrate the mosquitoes and gnats - the scourge Read more [...]
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Wood - a multi-storey building. Most of its inhabitants are, if not all, then, in any case, a few floors. To do this, they had to learn the technique of movement in the vertical and horizontal directions. As for moving from floor to floor is not provided with convenient ladder and the more elevators, forest peoples necessarily had to get climbing equipment. No less difficulty they experience, if you want to take a walk within your floor. Here, too, have to take risks, because they often live at a dizzying height. And in this case, climbing equipment is used to provide some insurance, and Read more [...]
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Hunting wolves

Wolf - the most harmful predator. It causes huge economic losses. So the wolves to be widespread destruction not only in winter, and during the year and in all possible ways. For each killed wolf given a cash prize. The main types of hunting wolves are destroying wolf broods on lair battue hunting the black trail, hunting with flags, hunting waiting in ambush, "Pskov" method of hunting, hunting a pig hunting from aircraft and snowmobiles. The destruction of the wolf dens on litters produced in April - June, when the wolves are not far away from the nest. The she-wolf's den suits Read more [...]
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Another crucifer - chesnochnik drug or pedunculate (Alliaria petiloata). This dvolno large, up to 1 m tall biennial with erect stems. Lower leaves are kidney-shaped or heart-shaped, on long petioles, collected in a rosette, recess Chato-crenate on the edge, the top - heart-oval, sharp-toothed. The flowers are white, the fruit - a pod 2-8 cm in length. It flowers from April to autumn, fruits, too, in the same time. The plant is mostly forest, found in shady deciduous forests and scrublands throughout most of the forest zone of the European part of Russia, the Caucasus, Central Asia. The taste Read more [...]
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Chapter V. Our way of life and scientific work

Routine. - Gramophone. - The competitions in the shooting. - Saturday cleaning. - Wintering in Antarctica is not terrible. - Acetylene plant. - Science classes. - Sailors scientists. - Meteorology and biology. - Outings on punt. - Only joint efforts bring success in their work. As soon as we moved into the house, we have established a solid routine, which we kept all winter, or rather, to the first sled trip. Enough so to describe one day to get an idea of how we spent the winter. While we have not entered the night watch, breakfast, I'm afraid, is not always start promptly at the Read more [...]
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Chamomile Russian

Annual serovatovoylochnoe plant height 10-40 cm Stems much branched from the base. The leaves are oblong, cut into linear and oblong-spatulate segments with sharp triangular slices. Baskets solitary, about 2 cm in diameter, on long, relatively thin legs. Wraps Zhestkova-losistye; their sharp outer leaves, inner - blunt the edge of a dry-wide scarious. Receptacle conical; film bed baskets oblong-ovate, toothed clearly on top, on top of the rapidly passing into the short edge. Outer flowers are white, lozhnoyazychkovye, female, median - yellow, tubular, bisexual. Fruits are achenes with short-cut Read more [...]
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Mountain pine

Tree 8-10 m high, 25 m can sometimes grow as a shrub, or even crawl. Stem bark brownish-gray, lustrous, smooth in young trees, in adults with dark crust scales, which are retained in the upper part of the trunk. The darker color of the upper part of the trunk - one of the characteristics of mountain pine. Young shoots are green, as lignification are gray-brown. Buds elongated, cylindrical, short-pointed, resinous. The needles are relatively short, 2.5 cm, hard, dull, somewhat twisted. Color dark green needles, the same on both sides (the second characteristic feature of the mountain pine). Begins Read more [...]
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More often than cattails, swamps and marshes, and often along rivers, right out of the water rises high grass stems with long, stiff leaves and large fluffy panicles of inflorescences. These buds are usually one-sided and the whole thicket bent in one direction - to the wind, to the same look and all the upper leaves. The height of these plants from 1 to 4 meters. The leaves are arranged around the stem, they are gray-green, stiff, pointed. Whisk thick, up to 40 cm long and 4-12 cm broad, reed bloom in July. Here reed (Phragmites communis). That it forms a large bush in the lower reaches Read more [...]
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In the dense spruce forest soil is covered with fallen pine needles, twigs, and only here and there in the gaps sickly green grass. Fold on the needles and branches shed new layer of pine needles and bark scales with large and small trees, spruce, and for a long life of the dead forest litter, dead soil cover. Between the upper horizon of the dead cover and soil humus layer is formed, that is, forest humus. In coniferous forest humus layer has an acid reaction, called coarse humus and contributes little to the germination of seeds. In sparse coniferous or deciduous forests flowered herbaceous Read more [...]
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Broomrape Kum, or sunflower

One-, two-or perennial herbaceous plant height of 10 to 50 cm, pubescent with short glandular hairs. The stem is yellowish or brownish, slightly thickened at the base, with a few widely lanceolate or ovate, scale-like leaves. Inflorescence many-flowered, cylindrical or oblong, usually loose, with far apart the lower flowers, the rest of the stem equal to or longer than him. Covering scales acuminate-ovate or ovate, calyx segments free, usually less than half its length, bifid or entire. Corolla up to 20 mm, tubular, strongly bent forward, with a clear constriction above the insertion of the Read more [...]
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Borjomi national park needed

It's been ten years since then, both in the national press first began to discuss the issue of the organization of the national parks. Very much has been written, further spoke of creating a national park near the Oka "Russian Forest". Still write, and, oddly enough, though already a decided case, the national park in the lake. Four years after the discussion of the problem of national parks in the pages of our magazine. Prominent scientists were then on the subject, wrote not only of the need for national parks, where they are scheduled to organizations ("Hunting and Game Read more [...]
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Black-bellied Sandgrouse

Typical resident clay deserts, especially wormwood, rarely settles in stony deserts, also found in the steppe. Lived in Central Asia and Kazakhstan, in desert areas rises in the Tien Shan Mountains to 1800 m arrives at nesting early in Turkmenistan appear in the spring - in the first week of March, in the Lake Balkhash - at the end of March. Spry and cautious bird, loves to swim in the dust a long time basking in the sun, lying on his side, especially near the waterhole. Black-bellied Sandgrouse in appearance like a dove, but bigger. Top grayish-yellow, variegated, goiter and breast yellowish-gray, Read more [...]
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Bike tour: equipment

Cycling has its advantages and features of the preparation for the hike. Do cyclists more opportunities to choose the route, and fatigue is much lower. The speed of movement exceeds the speed hikers several times.   Simply use bicycles such as "Road". They have a large base (distance between the centers of the wheels) and have a strong and wide tires. In addition, the handlebar can be mounted in any position. Soft seat, and this is important during long rides. And the details of road bikes are made with a large margin of safety. Read more [...]
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Beaver ordinary

Status. Ordinary, ubiquitous species. Distribution. It occupies area of the Atlantic coast of Europe to Mongolia. Was acclimatized in Kamchatka and Primorye. In the Saratov region, the largest beaver populations are confined to the floodplains of the rivers Volga, Khoper, Bear, Tereshka, B. and B. Irgiz Karaman. It also occurs in small bodies of water in all river basins Khoper, Dipper and the Volga. In the upper area of the Volgograd reservoir beavers live in inland lakes larger islands, oxbows, colonize riverbanks Dubyashka and Black water and estuaries, M. and B. Karamanov. In the late Read more [...]
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Blackthorn, blackthorn

It grows in the forest-steppe and steppe regions of the European part of Russia, in the mountains of the Crimea and the Caucasus, and also occurs in the forests of Western Europe, North Africa and Asia Minor. Usually grows on the edges of woods, glades, gullies and ravines. High, up to 5 m, shrub (rarely a tree) with a dark-gray, slightly cracked bark and spherical crown. Ribbed yellow-brown shoots barhatistoopushennye first and then get naked, shiny. Short shoots end thorn. Oblong oval leaves are dark green, dull, leathery. The flowers are single, white, up to 2 cm in diameter and bloom in Read more [...]
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Actinidia kolomikta

Shrub or vine, climbing up the trunks of trees to a height of 10-15 m in open areas trunks often straight or slightly wavy, 1.5-2 m in length, usually no thicker than 4.5 cm in diameter. Dark brown or reddish-brown bark on older trunks slightly scaly. The branches are usually twisted, and at the base of trunks spreading, often rooting. Young shoots are reddish brown or light brown with lots of light longitudinal lenticels. The leaves are ovate or almost elliptical, pointed at tip, cordate at base, pubescent on both sides of the veins reddish hairs. Spring when they deploy bronze, red-brown, Read more [...]
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Down rabbits

Kirov feather bred in farms Kirov region. Body length of the rabbits - 54-55 cm, live weight - 3.7 - 3.8 kg, and the largest - 5 kg, hair color - white, sometimes blue. With each animal harvested an average of 300 g, and on the top - at 400-600 g of down. Pooh these rabbits, as the most valuable, is used to make felt "velvet." Tatar feather Biryulinskaya bred in the farm by mating Angora rabbits rabbits normalnovolosymi large breeds. Body length Tatar fluffy rabbits ranged from 53 to 67 cm and live weight - 4 to 6.6 kg, going down on average per year from an animal about 400 grams, Read more [...]
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Herbaceous perennials, 2-20 cm high. Distribution: Arctic, the European part (north), the Caucasus, Western and Eastern Siberia, the Far East.

Of S. procumbens L. marked tannins. Found flavonoids (including en-totsiany), quinones, triterpene saponins.

Stern. For deer: S. procumbens.

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Food and water

Starvation When fasting adaptive reactions are expressed primarily in the reduction of energy consumption, reduction in metabolic rate. Deprived of food coming from outside the body, after appropriate adjustment begins to spend its internal fabric stores. They are large enough. So, with a weight of 70 kg has about 15 kg of fat.  Before the death of the organism occurs, it may spend 40-45% of these reserves. Tissue reserves should last for 37-42 days of complete starvation. It is at rest. But the task - to reach the village. Walking - it's work. It it costs three times more than in Read more [...]
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