Others | The survival encyclopedia - Part 7

Distracting activities

Mechanical and chemical methods of forest protection are not sufficiently effective and low-cost. Therefore, they must be complemented by a variety of distracting activities. It should be borne in mind that the harm caused by the forest game animals, the lower, the more in the forestry "eat" plants that animals can be used along with the most economically valuable species. Some researchers believe that certain forms of damage caused by wild ungulates cultural forests (eg obgryzyvanie cortex), depend on a lack of minerals and other essential components in their diet. In support Read more [...]
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Antarctic Odyssey. From the author

Northern Party chief Lieutenant Victor Campbell Most of the photographs reproduced in this book were made by Dr. Levick, who was the official photographer of the Northern Party. The author thanks Dr. Levick for what he allowed to use images, as well as to put his poems of "Aurora Australis" and record snowstorm March 17 and 18, 1912, tore the tent of his party. More photos of the author and Mr. Debenhemu. By bowing low to him. The author wishes to thank Read more [...]
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Description of thermal underwear

At the height of the winter season, so one of the urgent problems now with a choice of equipment - this thermals. I will not talk about all the properties of various thermal underwear: thick, thin, winter and summer. On this subject, and so quite different material. And as the most valuable information - it's personal recommendation, and not a recommendation of the producers concerned and sellers, I will write about their impressions of thermal underwear Norveg.Before the trip, in January of this year in order to Khibiny climbing Tahtarvumchorr "on belts" with the planned three Read more [...]
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Data preparation for the movement of the azimuth

The essence of the movement by the azimuth is the ability to withstand with a compass direction, and just go for the scheduled item. This method is indispensable for driving on unfamiliar terrain in the mountains, in the woods, in the desert, especially at night and in other low visibility conditions. Especially need these skills in combat troops. Azimuth go to explore and come back from it, is held direction offensive attack to march troops to various locations. How then prepares the data for the movement in azimuth and what they represent? Training on a data card for traveling on the Read more [...]
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Currant Manchu Shrub 1-2 m height. The bark is light gray, scaly narrow plates. Leaves usually 3-lobed, with a larger middle lobe. Long-pointed blades. Leaf blades glabrous above, with a few hairs on veins and top with a few hairs, and the bottom fluffy. Greenish flowers gathered in long racemes, often until 9, sometimes up to 16 cm in length. Thick brush contains 40 flowers that appear in June. In August, large mature, 7-9 mm in diameter, spherical red berries are edible, but tart, thick-skinned, with large seeds. Widespread in the Primorye Territory, going west to Bureya range, as well Read more [...]
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Continental tundra

Along the coast of the Arctic seas of the Arctic Ocean stretched wide in some places up to 600 km of the tundra - the vast treeless space. The climate is subarctic tundra. Winter is long - 8-9 months and very cold (down to -50 ° C). Summer is short, cold, often freezing. The average July temperature rarely rises above +12 ° C. Strong winds and big sky, summer often fogs. Annual precipitation is 200 to 400 mm per year and only in the north-eastern North America has up to 750 mm, which is much higher than the possible evaporation. The snow cover is low and reaches 0.2-0.5 m Power permafrost Read more [...]
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Rhode PTEROCARYA Kunth — Lapin.

P. pterocarpa (Michx.) Kunth ex I. Iljinsk. - A tree up to 30 m high. Distribution: Caucasus. Contains naftohnnony, flavonoids, as well as nitrogen-containing Comm. established structure. Marked tannins to 13.6% of the crust. Medicinal. Therapeutic action - anthelminthic - fruits, sudorific. Indications - diseases of the digestive system: for stomach - bark, leaves, diseases of the skin and subcutaneous fat: with scrofula - bark, leaves, skin diseases - fruits, infections / infestations: the diphtheria - bark, leaves. Toxicity. Exhibits insecticidal, ihtiotsidnuyu Activity: leaves. Food. Read more [...]
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Cleaning and disinfection of water. Part 2

The surest way to disinfect water - it boiling at least 8 - 10 minutes. If the liquid is taken from suspicious or highly contaminated source (which is allowed only in extreme cases), simmer for half an hour it should. For more antiseptic effect (depending on location) to the water boiling, you can add: - Young branches of spruce, pine, fir, cedar, juniper - 100-200 g per bucket. Deposited on the bottom of the brown, insoluble precipitate can not drink. - The bark of willow, willow, oak, beech, birch bark young - 100 150 g in a bucket of water and boil for 20-40 minutes, or pressing in warm water Read more [...]
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b and y and by the (German Biwak, French. bivouac), location (parking) tour. group for the night or rest. Members of the tour. groups are usually carried out on B. 10 - 14 hours a day. They are engaged in the camp equipment, cooking, repairing clothing and equipment, preparing for the next day, and relax. B. have a fairly flat and dry areas, glades, in reach of rockfalls, avalanches, floods, a direct lightning strike. Location should be sheltered from the wind and, if possible, to netrudoemko equipment is desirable that was near a water source.bivouacs in MountainsA - snow cave slope Read more [...]
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Chemical methods of protection

These methods are based on the fact that the trees bear the different substances with an unpleasant smell for wildlife or other properties to scare them away from the trees. We give examples of some test repellents in pilot production conditions. In 1964 Olyntynskom voivodeship (Poland) to ward off wild ungulates from pine, spruce and birch had preparation «Fckama Wildverbessmittcb, developed in the GDR. The population density of ungulates in the field-test of 2.5 times the permissible and the damage to the forest experience was 10-60%. Roe deer and began to return to the treated areas Read more [...]
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Mock orange fine-leaved

Shrub 2-2.5 m high. The bark of old branches, brown, brown or gray-brown, cracked and flaking. Young shoots brown, naked or slabovolosistye. The leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 4-8 cm long, dense to light, in the shade thin. Leaf base rounded or shirokoklinovidnoe, acuminate. At the edge of the leaves entire or toothed. Top of the leaf blade with single hairs from below with barbs at the corners of the veins. The flowers are white, slightly fragrant, collected by 3-7 in racemes, blooming in June. Fruit - 4-coal box with numerous brown seeds ripen in August. Extended to the Far East Read more [...]
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Cave exploration

The caves are a popular hiking purposes, but at the same time they are - a very interesting site for a detailed comprehensive scientific study. In the study of the cave, you must first make detailed topographical survey, measurements of heights, explore the geological structure of the site to find the genesis of the cave. Further study its flora and fauna, climate, hydrology (groundwater), and if the traveler has special training and authority, - pro-harass excavations. Cave exploration involves a number of risks: You can get lost, fall into a deep well, drown or die in the landslide caused Read more [...]
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Fishing tactics in the "battle", or in the pursuit of "Krupnyakov" Many spinning believe fishing predator while hunting on the surface is a single way of fishing, bringing sustained success in fishing. Sure, it's overkill, but fishing to "fight", really, with nothing comparable.There is a specific tactic of catching big pike, the meaning of which is: angler, focusing on the place of the "battle", do not throw the bait "in the thick of things," that is the place where the main meal of predators. Fact is that hunting small effect on relatives' Read more [...]
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Canadian goldenrod

Perennial herb up 60 280sm, with a creeping rhizome. Stems are erect, usually simple, pubescent. The leaves are alternate, lanceolate, edges serrate-toothed, hairy beneath. Baskets are small, clustered in one-sided arched brush, forming a common apical inflorescence metelkoobraznoe pyramidal shape. Flowers are yellow, edge lozhnoyazychkovye, middle tube. Fruits - cylindrical achenes, with brown crest. Flowers in July-September, achenes ripen in August-October. North American plant. In Europe, has long been cultivated as an ornamental, easy to escape. In Central Russia fully naturalized, Read more [...]
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 Burns - one of the most common types of hiking injuries. Burns occur when careless handling of fire, hot objects, boiling water, food, acids and alkalis. On the severity and depth of tissue damage burns are divided into four grades. For first-degree burns are characteristic redness, swelling and tenderness of the affected area. At the same time suffer the upper skin (epidermis).With second-degree burns on the reddened and swollen skin appear blisters filled with fluid (plasma). The shape and size of bubbles varied. Bubbles can be formed in a few minutes after the burn, and sometimes on Read more [...]
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Brown bear. Dining berries

Food reaction to this kind of food is formed in animals early and later changes little. All bears a population have a similar picture of the behavior observed when procuring berries. The reason for this is the existence of innate, fixed in the phylogeny of behavioral acts, which are formed on the basis of a well-defined food-getting stereotype. Almost all young bears a population in the period of eating are very close in terms of external environment with a set of stimuli acting in space and time, which determines the formation of the same type for all individuals of a given population eating Read more [...]
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Hunters often have to cook their own food, rest and even sleep at any time of the year away from populated areas, so the ability to quickly dissolve a particular stake in the hunting life has great value. Nodya - a fire, which is used by experienced hunters for overnight stays in the forest, especially in winter. For nodi best taken dead spruce: other woods less suitable - birch quickly burns, pine and aspen badly inflamed and often go out fir throws away around the spark. Two spruce logs length of 2.5-3 m along each put one on the other and fixed in this position, driven into the ends Read more [...]
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Volchnik (daphne) lethal wolf bark

It grows in the forests of the European part of Russia, in the subalpine zone of the Caucasus Mountains, in Western Siberia. Settling mostly in shady places on fertile, moist soil. Malovetvisty shrub up to 1.5 m in height, with a few erect stems and gray, slightly yellowish crust. In early spring, when the ravines and hollows still snow, shoots volchnika entirely covered soft lilac-pink flowers, their pleasant scent like the smell of vanilla. After flowering, there are dark blue-green leaves with a few ciliated on the edge, oblong-obovate, clustered at the ends of the branches, with short spines Read more [...]
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The transition in the forest

Those who have been in the forest, knows how difficult it is to move among the rubble and windbreaks in gustolese, overgrown with bushes. The apparent similarity of the situation - the trees, terrain folds, etc. - can completely disorient a person and he often moves around, unaware of his mistake. Such is the case described Arsenyev, lost once in the Ussuri taiga, "For two hours I have wandered at random. The area was surprisingly monotonous: glades, woods, ravines, bushes, a few trees and dead wood on the ground - it was all so similar to each other, which in these subjects was impossible Read more [...]
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