Yellow ground squirrel or gopher-sandstone — citellus fulvus lichtenstein. Reproduction and growth of young

Yellow gophers different subspecies differ in terms of puberty. As we pointed out (1955), in South Kazakhstan and Chu valley squirrels participate in reproduction after the first winter hibernation at the age of 11-12 months, and in the northern parts of the range - after the second hibernation. Smaller subspecies are more hasty than larger ones. It should, however, be noted that the number of participants in the semi-mature females breeding ground squirrels from the south-eastern part of the area does not exceed 9.5% (Kydyrbaev, 1959). In males, puberty occurs later, so they are involved in Read more [...]
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Features of movement on the tundra at different times of the year. Clothing and footwear

Have great value clothing and footwear. And if you decide to move in search of shelter, we need to check all the equipment, which is available or which can be made (ie the ability to use what was left of the vehicle after the accident or accident). A fall from a sled with the best of the fall did not go, but dig a snow cave and put markings for those who will be looking for. Dogs are required to return to housing, and in the wake sledges people come to help. When leaving the crash site to find the victim much more difficult. When moving to warm the feet additional insoles, shoe covers make Read more [...]
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Winter hunting for grouse

Winter grouse hunting is conducted with stuffed. - From late October to January, when the leaf shall fade, disappear and grouse berries begin to eat birch buds. At this time grouse fly in flocks to feed. Neobhodymo explore where and at what time hold grouse, in what directions do flights and what trees usually sit. Hunting with stuffed carried out of the hut. Tents are set in advance on the edge of forests or forest clearings, near the place where grouse usually sit down at the trees. Tents placed near trees, visible from afar. For the manufacture of tents used by native vegetation. Not recommended Read more [...]
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Ways of transporting the victim

 If the victim can not move itself, the field conditions, to provide first aid, he brought to the nearest town to provide further medical care. Carry or carry the injured need so as not to cause him pain, not to aggravate the already grave condition. It is important to know how to lift the victim to know in which cases can carry it while sitting, and when necessary, or even while lying on a stretcher, and on the shield.Laid on a stretcher must be so, two, and preferably three, standing side by side and dropped to one knee, summing his hands behind his head and shoulder, lower back and pelvis, Read more [...]
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What to do if bitten by a bee?

Bees and similar insects often zhalyatsya in July or August. Bee stings dangerous because not only can bee leave its stinger in the wound, but also necessarily wasted in the bite venom. There are both domestic bees, which are specifically bred for apiaries and wild forest bees. The latter are more dangerous because their venom is more toxic than poison home, and they are said to be many times the "meaner" domestic bees. Bee venom is able to provide the most diverse effects on the human body. One bite can cause short-term pain, redness and swelling, which subsides after a few hours. Read more [...]
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Weather prediction by thunder

Signs of bad weather If you go during the storm of noise large dark clouds - will hail, and the same thing, if the clouds are dark blue, and among them are white. If the thunder long, rolling and sharp - it points to continued bad weather. If it thunders continuously - will hail. Sharp explosive thunder - to shower.     Muffled thunder - to the gentle rain. Signs of improvement in the weather If thunder abruptly and short-lived - the storm will be over soon. Predicting the Rain If the air is rich with moisture and well-heated in the lower Read more [...]
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Water-salt regime

drinking regime, regulation of volume, frequency, and chemical. of fluid intake with Financials account. load state of the human and climate. conditions. Rational water schedule should provide optimal fluid and electrolyte balance (the ratio of number you received in the body and the removal of water from it, and miner. Salts) and high human performance. Drinking rate depends on the age, sex, body weight, physical. activity, the rate-ture of the environment and other factors. In normal comfort in a day on average adult needs 35 - 40 ml of water per 1 kg of body weight. When water shortages Read more [...]
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Hunting for sable

Sable lives in Russia, and in very small numbers in the Mongolian mountains in the northeast of China. Sable circulated in many parts of Siberia and the western slopes of the Northern Urals. Sable coloring varies from light cream to almost black. The most valuable are dark Barguzin sable, then Vitim, Kamchatka, some Altai and Sayan. On biological characteristics sable approaching marten. Feet paws sable much denser pubescence than the marten (especially in winter), and should therefore be much larger than it seems kunego. Sable - a land predator, but he is saved from persecution in the trees. Read more [...]
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Veronica broadleaf

Perennial herb 30-70 cm tall, with a creeping rhizome braid. Stems erect or ascending, rather thick. Leaves oblong-ovate, cordate, with short petioles or sessile, almost amplexicaul from toothed palmate to crenate-incised on the edge (very rarely leaves almost entire). Flowers in dense brush 6-15 cm long, extending from the axils of the upper two to four leaves. Bracts pubescent, linear-lanceolate, pedicels equal or longer. Calyx of 5 (rarely 4) unequal share-linear-lanceolate to subulate, a fifth share is much smaller than the others. Corolla bright blue, rarely pink or white, with dark Read more [...]
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The education of young brown bears

The reaction is followed. This is an important accessory a young animal, providing him the best safety in the early, very important period of life. During the move, a family group from one place to another, when the most likely possibility of losing a baby (especially in many families), the reaction sequence provides a solid contact with the baby's mother, makes him relentlessly follow. In the classical works on. Example precocial birds has been shown that the reaction sequence is the result of recording chick stimulus object in a short sensitive period in the very early stages of ontogeny. Read more [...]
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Squirrel family. Chipmunk

Chipmunk - Small animal, the body length of 13-18 cm, the tail is about 10 cm The coat has a special color - on the back of a reddish-yellow or reddish-gray, with five black longitudinal stripes on the casings - light gray. Chipmunks are found in the forest areas of the Far East (except Kamchatka), Siberia, the Urals and north-east of the European part of the USSR. Outside the USSR, chipmunks are found in China and Mongolia. Chipmunks live in forests, shrubs on forest edges and in river valleys. Settle in holes dug in the grass, under fallen trees, their roots and stumps. They feed during Read more [...]
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Transport in the valley

The patient, who was taken to the valley, can be attached to the same litter between two horses. Horses put a train at a distance greater than the length of the stretcher or six at 50-80 cm on each side. Stretcher tied rope running from each side of the seat or stretcher chrezsedelniku. Level tethers should be consistent. Walking side by comrades hold the stretcher lateral rolling. When transporting a patient by a car severely damaged skull or spine, a car loaded with sand to half its lifting capabilities. Load increases slightly above the rear wheels. The patient is placed across the Read more [...]
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Cheeked ground squirrel — citellus erythrogenys brandt. The practical significance

Changes in population. Changes in the number of red-squirrel studied by many authors (Martin, 1922; Vinogradov, 1924 Zverev, 1927 Belyaev, 1955 Tolebaev, 1958 Zaleski, 1962), and these studies focused mainly on the influence of agriculture on the dynamics of their population. It was found that the maximum value for the gophers have plowed steppes and arable land gradually accustom small animals. So cheeked ground squirrel in the twenties, thirties, occupy only the marginal zone of crops and did not stay there for long slumber. "After the development of virgin lands for settlement of his Read more [...]
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The untouched wilds of the taiga. Blizzard. Quick fire

Burano.All week I was preparing to leave the taiga. The balcony was littered with wild boar meat and I was not interested in hunting, and the study hill overgrown. Most of all I wanted to find a bear den and look for musk deer habitat. Frost up to ten degrees, but snow stubbornly refused to fall. Postpone trip because the service could not be better. Seventh day of November in the dark, I throw the passenger car to the upper reaches of the river Shkotovki. Because of the cloud cover long advancing dawn. The night before the weather started to frown. By morning, the pressure dropped to Read more [...]
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The road to the hole

Ways to pond are different. Someone enough to leave the house and go down to the ice on the marble steps, it worked almost "slaves of Rome" - this fish some residents Peter. And someone will have a long road, with "chaise" with shaking in railway cars and sleeping on the floor} 7 in abandoned and poorly protoplennyh huts, with long passages on foot far from any human habitation. In any of these cases, you need to indulge in way only in shape, being healthy and good night's sleep. The last remark is very important, as most anglers beginning to "anticipate" the Read more [...]
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The number of sea lions on the Commander Islands in 1920-1926 gg.

Under Soviet rule mining seals declined sharply and amounted to: in 1923 on Bering Island 351 units, on the island of Copper - 691 units, a total of 1042 pieces. In 1924, respectively 235, 622 and 857 pc. In 1925 . -435, 492 and 927 pc. in 1926, -361, 531 and 892 units. and in 1927, -342, 569 and 911 units. In order to preserve and increase the stock of producers in the islands are only scoring singles. Fishing seals on the Commander Islands in 1928-1940 gg. Island farming was organized with the Soviet government and the other islands of the Far East, in particular Shantar where produce Read more [...]
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The hunt for partridges

Hunting the gray partridge is permitted usually from mid-September to mid-October. By this time the young are all grown up and stepped on the wing. Broods of partridges kept in the bushes and gullies near the fields on which they feed in the morning and in the evening, picking fallen grain. In the daytime the partridge often resting on potato fields or in small bushes near the fields. The gray partridge hunt with hound dog for the day. Partridge good harbors and run fast. Commonly found dog litter he sought to get away from her, and then takes off all at once, making a lot of noise. After Read more [...]
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The device in the Arctic refuge

No matter how warm or had clothes, maintain the required temperature of the body, it can only strictly limited time. Under negative temperatures eventually heat balance was not in favor of human rights and begin cooling the body. Therefore, the device seekers in which to shelter from the cold and wind - one of the main conditions for survival in the high latitudes. In the Russian polar expeditions are currently used tent KAPSh (Frame tent Shaposhnikov). In form, they resemble Chukchi yaranga or Kazakh yurt. A tent frame is assembled from aluminum alloy tubes. Its three-layer wall: upper black Read more [...]
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White potatoes North American Indians

Europeans have recently become so accustomed to Potato without it, for without bread, can not do without. Meanwhile, potato is not so long ago appeared in the Euro rope, and the story of his very curious. More than four years ago, a boy of thirteen Ped ro Cheza de Leon secretly snuck aboard the Spanish conquistadors, the first conquerors of South America, and with it ended up in an amazing country of Peru. Spanish soldiers and officers were looking for gold. They killed the Peruvians and burned their houses. Pedro looked a little surprised eyes to the strange building elaborate on things and Read more [...]
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Tent and sleeping bag for comfortable sleep

Indispensable feature of any expedition are sleeping bags and tents. Since this is a journey of the taiga in the warm season, choosing a sleeping bag, you need to focus on its operating temperature within +15 / -10 ° C. Comfortable sleep at such temperatures can provide sleeping bags with synthetic fillers middle class - Aerofibre, Hollo Fibre, Arctic TM. All they do not absorb moisture, dries quickly when wet in the wind, have a high resistance to compression, are more durable than natural analogues or parka. But more important is the exterior material sleeping bag. It should be "breathable" Read more [...]
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