(French croquis - sketch), the drawing of the terrain with a detailed mapping of the major elements. Normally is produced by the visual K. shooting. K. basis in advance can be made by topographicalCoy map or aerial image. 8 round. C. to form areas of particular interest (eg, difficult to pass passes obstacles in rivers, crossing the possible places, etc.) as well as to correct and clarify the routes. Conventional scale K. - 1:100 000 - 1:25 000 and larger. K. cause local landmarks, ways to overcome obstacles, the scale, the direction of the magnetic meridian, the shooting date. C. Pass perform Read more [...]
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Siberian Skerda

Perennial herb 50-150 cm tall, with short thickened woody rhizome. Stems solitary, rib-grooved, erect, branched in the upper part, pubescent like the leaves from the bottom, erect, pale or less stiff, almost black wavy hair. The leaves are very large, up to 40 cm long and up to 10-13 cm wide, oblong-elliptical, wrinkled; radical and lower stem - with shirokokrylatymi petioles, middle and upper stem - cordate amplexicaul base. Baskets are a few, large, generally collected corymbose inflorescence. Involucre campanulate, 1.2-2 cm in diameter, bracts outside the midline seated long stiff simple Read more [...]
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Sharpening on Lansky: Rough Stone (Part 3)

Description:Attention to all the "experts"! - This is not a guide to what is official and not the correct way to work with sharpener. THIS IS MY PERSONAL EXPERIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SHARPENING I checked and choose for themselves. The third video of the series. In this video series I share their experience on the sharpener for sharpening known firm Lansky. I spent many hours in working with her and I am sure that my advice will be useful for those who choose to undertake this sharpener.In this video, I'll introduce you to how Read more [...]
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How to break camp

For the location and arrangement of the bivouac should be treated carefully, with skill. Bivouac areas tentatively scheduled on the map when the route is developed, over the same exact place of bivouac is determined directly in the campaign. It should be a safe, dry and protected from the wind, even, to be close to sources of fuel and drinking water. Preferably stay on a high (but not too high) bank, not by the water, in a forest clearing and forest edges, and not in the forest, in the coniferous, not deciduous forest. You should not stay in the lowlands, canyons, dry river beds of streams Read more [...]
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The spatial illusion

In the study of the functions of perception in people involved in the first airplane flights with playing weightlessness (parabola Kepler), revealed a number of violations, are reduced to a distortion of spatial relations, size and shape of the perceived objects. Here is self-observation the author: "In the second 'hump' I had to" float "in weightlessness ... Weightlessness came suddenly, and I, not having time to recover, he felt that flew up, and then in an uncertain direction. Was complete disorientation in space . I then started to some degree understand the situation. Read more [...]
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Safety equipment

For the safety of movement and overcome the obstacles on the water, mountain, ski and speleological routes important to the quality of equipment. low buoyancy, poor stability, low seaworthiness of vessels selected for the trip, their lack of tools that provide unsinkable, or strong enough, improper width, flexibility, and material moving surface skis, skis without metal edging Mountain ice crust, with a small bend Noskov in deep fresh snow - all of which can cause an accident. Since two thirds of travel time has on a halt, overnight bivouac and work for injury prevention does not fit for purpose Read more [...]
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Rosa genus includes about 400 species. This deciduous, erect or sometimes prostrate shrubs with thorns on new growth (and therefore often called rose) growing in the bushes along forest edges, in clearings and meadows, along rivers and lakes, on the slopes of the mountains, at least in the undergrowth. The leaves are alternate, compound, pinnate, of 5, 7, 9-toothed leaves. Flowers bisexual, 5-blade, single or collected several in corymbose or racemes, petals painted in pink, red, yellow, or white. Fruit - small nuts enclosed in a fleshy orange, red or black shell, which is often used as a vitamin Read more [...]
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Rings Witch

Mushrooms hiding under leaves, moss, twigs. If you go to the white mushroom, do not hurry on, and looking around, second, third. They grow in a circle. In open clearings, forest edges can see a perfect circle no one pluck grebes. In these circles, no grass grows. Only if the circle great, then in the middle of its island green grass. Mushroom ring around the outside, as it were trampled path. In ancient times, people do not know the reasons for this phenomenon of nature, gave him the most fantastic explanations. All the peoples of mushroom circles evoked curiosity. In France they were Read more [...]
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Rhode TYPHA L. — Cattails.

Herbaceous perennials, 30-300 cm tall. Distribution: all regions except the Arctic. Contain flavonoids (including catechins), steroids (including phytosterols (Takatsugo, 1997), liklitoly and their esters, carbohydrates to 81% in the underground. Including T. latifolia L., ieproteiiovye amino acids, and triterpenoids (Liu, Lu, 1998), phenolic and higher fatty acids and their esters (in H including phosphatides), higher aliphatic alcohols and hydrocarbons established structure. allocated tannins, fatty oil. detected carotenoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyans, polysaccharides, lignnn to 18% in the Read more [...]
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S. abides L. - Water herbaceous perennial to 50 cm long. Distribution: European part, the Caucasus, Western Snbnr. Found flavonoids (including anthocyanins in Hi, lenkoantotsnany), vitamin C. Stern. For cattle, pigs, waterfowl, fish, muskrats (leaves). Environmental significance. Battery radioisotopes. Read more [...]

Rhode SCROPHULARIA L. — Figwort.

Single, biennials, herbaceous perennials, shrubs rarely 2-100 cm high. Distribution: all regions except the Arctic. Contain iridoids to 1.2% in the underground. h S. nodosa L, triterpene saponins to 22.5% to 5.6% flavonoids and alkaloids to 0.2% in oversight. h S. chrysantha Jaub. et Spach, phytosterols, glycityl, carbohydrates and nitrogen Comm., phenolic acids and glycosides, higher fatty acids and higher aliphatic hydrocarbons established structure. Marked tannins to 2% of the Subtitle. h S. nodosa. Found coumarin, vitamin C. Medicinal. Those r a n e a r ch e s to th action-laxative-S. Read more [...]
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Herbaceous perennials, 50-150 cm tall. Distribution: The Far East. Contain di-and triterpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, lignans, and esters of phenolic-tion and higher fatty acids established structure. Medicinal. In the experiment, a diterpenoid glaukokaliksin leaves R. japonica (Burm. f.) Naga inhibits platelet aggregation, diterpenoid plektrin oversight. including antitumor, underground. hours, leaves, flowers - antifungal, tincture - antiamebnuyu, oversight. h - antitrihomo-NADH, alcoholic extract of R. excisa (Maxim.) Naga has antioxidant properties. Melliferous. R. japonica (also Read more [...]
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A. minima (L.) Schweigg. et Koerte — Annual 5-30 cm high. Distribution: European part.

Medicinal. Indications — the immune system disease: rheumatism, metabolic diseases: gout, diseases of the digestive system: hemorrhoids, diseases of the nervous system: the sciatica.

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Rhode ORTHANTHELLA Rauschert (syn. ORTHANTHA (Bernth.) A Kerner) — ORTANTELLA.

O. lutea (L.) Rauschert - Annual 6-40 cm high. Distribution: European part, Caucasus. Contains nrndoidy, flavonoids, carotenoids, glntsity and sugar esters established structure. Detected alkaloids, coumarins, steroid saponins. Medicinal. Therapeutic action - analgesic. Indications - diseases of the digestive system: the intestinal colic. In the experiment, the amount of flavonoids oversight. h increases the amplitude of heart rate and volume rate of coronary blood flow, has a vasodilatory effect, the sum of iridoids exhibits antibacterial activity. Melliferous. Read more [...]
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Cattail (narrow-leaved and broad-leaved)

Common names: reeds, chakan, cane, devil stick. Description. Perennial herbaceous marsh rhizome plant up to 1.5 - 2 m thick stems, cylindrical. Leaves are linear, long, vaginal, located at the base of the stem. Flowers unisexual, clustered on the cob. Pistillate - at the base, they are black-brown, staminate - above them at the top. Fruit - nut. Blooms in June and July. Characterized by the following features Rogoza. In broadleaf cattail leaves broadly linear (up to 1.5 cm wide.), Stamen part cob directly adjacent to the pistil. Typha angustifolia leaves have already (0.5-1 cm wide.), Read more [...]
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Rhode LIPARIS Rich. — Snails.

Herbaceous perennials and 50 cm high. Distribution: European part, Western Siberia, and the Far East. L kumokuri F. T-shirts, contains alkaloids established structure. Medicinal. Those r a n e a r ch e s to e of action - fever - Hopes. Part L. japonica (Miq.) Maxim. Indications - diseases of the respiratory system: respiratory infections - Hopes. Part L. japonica; kidney and urinary tract: in diseases of the urinary tract - Subtitle. Part L loeseli (L) Rich. Food. Edible: leaves of L. japonica. Read more [...]
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Hunting in the feudal society. Part 2

At the end of the XV and XVI century, at the beginning of the educated Russian centralized state (final abolition of feudal fragmentation ended in XVII c.). The growth in the circulation of commodities and money economy, increase the exchange between regions, formation of the national market demand for furs increased significantly. The sharp increase in demand for fur in both domestic and overseas markets stimulated hunting. Despite the growing flow of furs on the market, the demand is not fully satisfied and prices for furs increased. With the expansion of Muscovy to the north and Read more [...]
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Rhode HALENIA Borkh. — Galen.

N. comiculata (L.) Cornaz - annual plant up to 50 cm high. Distribution: European part (east), Western and Eastern Siberia, the Far East. Contains xanthones, flavonoids and iridoids established structure (Rodriguez, Wolfender, Hostettmann, 1996). Highlighted the essential oil, tannins. Alkaloids found 0.3%. Drug (nadz. hours). The therapeutic effect'' choleretic, sedative, stimulating appetite, antipyretic, diuretic. C o Punishment - diseases of the digestive system: the hypo stomach, gastritis, enterocolitis, cholecystitis, jaundice, liver, bile ducts, psychiatric illness: the neuroses, Read more [...]
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Rhode FOENICULUM Mill. — Fennel.

F. vulgare Mill. - Or biennial herbaceous perennial up to 200 cm high. Distribution: Caucasus. Widely cultivated in the southern areas. Contains coumarin to 1.3% in iadz. hours (including furokumariny), flavonoids and 0.9% in the oversight. hours (including anthocyanins). limp, and moio triterpeioidy, fitosteriiy and phenols and esters H, feiilpropanoidy, aromatic aldehyde, ketone, and fatty acids feioliye ustaiovleiioy structure. Highlighted the essential oil to 5% of iadz. hours, fixed oil to 26.G% of the fruit. Found poliatsetilenovye Comm., Triacylglycerides, vitamin C. Drug (the Read more [...]
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Dishes from small animals and birds

Rabbit on a spit Prepare rabbit carcass and sustain it in the marinade overnight. Then wash, lard slices of bacon and fry, putting on a spit over hot coals is not very occasionally greasing. Collect in a cup, to the extent possible, that ran down a hare when roasting sauce. Place your roast rabbit with the sauce. Hare or rabbit on a skewer (first method) Cut the flesh from the bones and pickle. Small pieces of low-fat string on skewers alternately with onion rings, fatty cuts of meat and whole or sliced vegetables. Then all products pour hot oil and herb sauce and cook over coals for 10-15 Read more [...]
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