The life of animals is natural communities within the strict framework of the sex ratio and age groups. Changes in environmental conditions or shooting, aiming at the removal of any one group, will inevitably lead to a change in the number of animals (population). The ratios of individual groups of animals and limiting the population density of roe deer in summer habitats support some intrapopulation factors.
Such factors include the relationships that arise within a single family, as well as in the aggregate of all individuals living in the area. In fact, how do you explain that some plot Read more [...]
As mentioned, the overall survival tactics in the mountains directly depends on the vertical zonation, that is, on how high the accident occurred. In the highlands of the victims will face some of the same problems as in the high latitudes - lack of food of plant and animal origin, low air temperatures, the presence of snow cover, lack of fuel for fires and other emergency Belt forest provides about the same possibilities for survival as the taiga, etc. However, there are pure mountain hazards such as life-threatening, the victim of the accident and of themselves can be the cause of the disaster. Read more [...]
After polar bear was chosen as one of the symbols of the Winter Olympics in Sochi, it is easy to understand: we are waiting for a surge of interest in this mysterious beast, surrounded by a halo of rumors and speculation. Perhaps someone - even happen to see him in his natural habitat. How does the act face to face with the owner of the Arctic?
All imagine what it looks like white polar bear: it is quite large creature moving on all fours, weighing half a ton, with a developed, right - did titanic muscled, well-armed with tooth and nail. The king of the North. This killing machine. But how Read more [...]
Hamster has a short, dense body length of up to 35 cm (tail - up to 6 cm). The coat is soft, thick, reddish-brown and black on the ridge on the casings, with two white spots on each side.
Hamsters live in all regions of the European part of the USSR to the south line of Yaroslavl-Kirov - Perm, in the Kazakh SSR and Western Siberia. In the North Caucasus produced a relatively large number of small blackish hamster skins are valued much lower skins Hamster. Outside USSR hamsters are found in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Germany.
Hamsters make their homes in the fields, gardens, melon fields, Read more [...]
Manul - Medium-sized cat with a tall, thick and soft fur. Body length of 40-65 cm, tail - 20-30 cm Manuli live in southern Transbaikalia, in the Altai region in Kazakhstan fur of these animals - reddish smoky shot with silver, sometimes with narrow dark transverse stripes and dark belt on the ridge. Manuli also found in Turkmen and Tajik SSR, their fur is colored reddish color with a reddish tint and a very rare dark transverse stripes. Outside the USSR Man'ula found in parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, China and Mongolia.
Manuli inhabit the mountain-steppe, steppe and desert Read more [...]
Outside of Kazakhstan in the north lazybones was common in the steppes of Trans-Urals. Currently, he remained there only isolated settlements in the southern part of the Chelyabinsk region - Bredin-Soviet, Kizilskoe, Poltava, and Varmenskom Kuyurgazinskom areas (Schwartz, Peacock, Daniel, 1951). In this Kustanai region animal found in the northern regions - Fedorov, Mendygarin-Soviet and Presnogorkovskaya (Sludsky, 1939 Tkachenko, 1959). In the North-Kazakhstan region it is found in the area Presnovskom (Tkachenko, 1959). Next, the northern boundary of its distribution goes to the lake. Selety-Tentiz Read more [...]
This time, even the morning dew was not. The grass was dry, sonorous, and the sun, unable to rise above the horizon, is thick, as in the afternoon.
Behind me hung assembly of plastic film, which were firing tools, fishing rods, two dozen baked mussels and bottle of shampoo with water. In the hands - Kirk of staples and stick.
I decided to walk along the shoreline. But there were so many stones that, having reached the cliffs of the Left, I am completely exhausted. If this will happen, I have on sneakers is nothing left when I get to the place, and I'll get there only for the night.
After Read more [...]
Thoughts about survival, be it global catastrophe or just breaking away from the city car anyway regularly visit many of us. Many on the basis of these disturbing thoughts try to prepare yourself for such a chance. One day a group of enthusiasts, united by the idea, gathered to hold three training out of survival. About how it is they happen, read on.
CHECK OUT THE FIRST
After lengthy debate, it was divided into two phases. The first phase was a pilot, and was to be to try to survive and to evaluate what is important in the event of this kind and to build a more appropriate model for the second Read more [...]
Bear Grylls served in the SAS special forces is an expert on survival in extreme environments. In these films, he shows how to survive the dangers of nature itself. Bear shows survival skills are the most extreme way. Throw it out of a helicopter from a height of 2000 meters and in addition it has a parachute carrying only a knife and flint. He has to find food, water, direction, shelter. On the way Beara will rise: scorpions karakurt, cobras, rhinos, piranhas, sharks, elephants, bears, lions, and the unbearable cold and hellish heat.
In this series, Bear Grylls overcome new challenges - he Read more [...]
One day me an unpleasant incident. After him, I was about to give up thoughts hikes. I then led a group of newcomers to the Caucasus.
The route was quite complex. We descended from the ridge without trails. Gently passed the rock, slowly descended the scree, entered the forest. The slope was steep, densely overgrown with trees and underbrush. In the forest, rocky outcrops - stone cliffs above the hidden bush. We cautiously down the steeply dipping bed of the stream. Sometimes we had to get out of bed, avoiding high levels of waterfalls.
We had to think about accommodation on the slopes, Read more [...]
Annual plant height of 5-30 cm, grayish hairs of stellate hairs, almost spherical shape ("rolling stone") by forked from the base of the stem. Leaves linear-filiform, apex with a strong cusp, the next, but in the forks of the stem - opposite or whorled. Unisexual flowers: staminate perianth with bifid and single stamen collected by 2-5 in the axils of the upper leaves; pistillate - Single, without perianth, hidden in a fully fused bracts oblong-wedge-bract, in fruit with two divergent top long straight ulnar styloid. It flowers from May to July, fruiting in July-August.
Distributed Read more [...]
This is a predatory animal in our country wide area. In the east-west direction it extends from the southern regions of the Komi Republic to the Sea of Okhotsk. Observed fairly rapid expansion of the range to the west, the entire European part of columns populated in the last 70-80 years.
Column habitat is very diverse - from the dark coniferous taiga to the birch and aspen peg in forest-steppe areas. Beyond the forest, settling in the reeds on the banks of lakes and rivers of the steppe and shrub meadows. The forests prefers valleys and streams, particularly in mountainous and semi, littered Read more [...]
Being in the Carpathian mountains, Altai, Kazakhstan, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Siberia, Far East, etc., must be considered unusual for many people of the mountainous climate and await him at every turn dangerous.
Each person walking in the mountains, should have information on the impact on the body of the mountain climate, the dangers and precautions in the mountains and be able to navigate.
Person particularly depressing the following factors:
1. With the rise of the mountain and lower barometric air pressure (Appendix 1) decreases the concentration of oxygen, which acts on the Read more [...]
Sleeping bag used to overnight in cold temperatures and bad weather. Climber often have to sleep in a sleeping bag without a tent.
Sleeping bag consists of three parts: the envelope, bag and liner. The shell is made of waterproof, but breathable material, bag - from a quilted satin and percale down, wool or cotton batting. The best are the feather bags, which are very warm with low weight. Instead sheet is thrust into the bag liner fabric or flannel. Sleeping bag should weigh 2-2.5 kg.
Climber must be placed in a bag over his head. The top of the bag has a cut with clasps. After Read more [...]
If there was a question without bakery baking bread and piles of ingredients, the best option - it is unleavened bread. They do not require any special skill or rare products. In fact, they can be out of the oven only flour and water. To learn how to bake your own bread, read on.
Better to use here these simple recipe: flour, water, a spoon of vegetable oil or any other fat, some baking soda, salt and sugar to taste. Mix all ingredients and add flour until until the dough is thick, as the dumplings. Then dense cakes are obtained, it is easy drying, suitable for long transportation. But Read more [...]
Techniques of insurance on a snowy ridge in the most challenging mountain climbing. Especially their lie in the dynamics of performance. Indeed, carefully mounted ice ax can serve as a basis for detention only top rope, or disrupting the top in pure pendulum, or disrupting normal on slopes up to 40-45 °. In this case, the maximum impact force on the ice pick will be between 30-100 kg and fear can expect to deal with it.
However, in all other cases, the tug will be stronger, so that the fear can not keep the ice pick and a proper balance on a snowy ridge. Therefore, it should always be Read more [...]
Herbaceous perennials, biennials rarely to 200 cm high. Propagation: All.
Contain flavonoids, triterpenoids, phytosterols, carbohydrates and nitrogen Comm., Phenolic glycosides, phenolic acids (Syrchiia, Semenov, Ziichenko, 1997), and higher aliphatic hydrocarbons and alcohols established structure. Marked fatty oil to 27.2% of the fruit C. arvense (L.) Scop., Essential oil, tannins, rubber. Detected alkaloids, coumarins, vitamins C and K.
Medicinal. Therapeutic action - disinfectant - Hopes. Part C. arvense, wound healing - oversight. Part C. arvense, C. esculentum (Siev.) SA Mey., S. heterophyllum Read more [...]
Campaign begin at the start of training and can be consummated only when the group will report to the tourist section of the collective physical education and sports society, before the establishment of an organized group, and has passed a written report. Only then route the commission may issue a certificate of tourists spent their campaign and take it to a set-off for a particular category.
Summing up the results of each tourist hike is necessary not only for the promotion of tourism. The main purpose of the campaign is conducted analysis summarizing experience on engineering and community Read more [...]
Single, biennials and 50 cm high. Distribution: European part, Caucasus. Contain steroids, triterpenoids (including kukurbntatsnny in H), flavonoids and thioglycosides established structure. Detected alkaloids, vitamin C.
Medicinal. Therapeutic action - a diuretic, expectorant - seeds I. umbellata L., wound healing - oversight. Part I. amara L Statement - diseases of the cardiovascular system: the heart disease - Hopes. h, seeds, myocarditis, endocarditis - seeds I. amara (Vavilov, 1994), diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract: kidney disease - Hopes. hours, diseases of the respiratory Read more [...]
Herbaceous perennials and 70 cm high. Distribution: all regions except the Arctic. Contain fatty acids established structure. Allocated fixed oil to 31% from seed A. spicata L. Oiaruzheny alkaloids, saponins, vitamin C.
Medicinal. Therapeutic action - sedative - Subtitle. Part A. spicata, normalizing metabolism - fruit laxative - Subtitle. Part A. spicata. Indications - diseases of the digestive system: for stomach - Hopes. Part A. erythrocarpa Fisch., fruits of A. spicata, intestines - Hopes. Part A. erythrocarpa; pain: for headache - Hopes. Part A. erythrocarpa, fruits of A. Read more [...]