From Fig. 7 that the group II errors observed in practice much less, and III - are essentially random. Although there are examples that require close attention. We mention some of them.
This error is typical for beginners. The main reason for it - lack of endurance and patience belayer. Insurance holding up to this point first and then removed.
Frozen, one-sided, stand always physically difficult, especially for young people. The more that fear often seems that the first is too slow and that it was his place to this site much faster. Starting tips below (note the belayer is lost!), Read more [...]
"I was not supposed to survive" - documentary series, which tells about the people who found themselves on the verge of certain death, for which the encounter with death became a crucial episode in the biography, and the ordeal - the beginning of a new life. You will learn about the miraculous powers of the human body that are manifested in the extreme conditions in which a person is on the verge of death. Learn about the mistakes committed by people who, being in despair, for whom death was the best way out of a terrible nightmare.
17 Series: "Caught in the darkness" / "Into Read more [...]
How do you get lost, why?
We got lost on the third day. On this day, as I understood, the body began the transition process "hungry" mode, and I was thinking very bad. The crucial point was that in such a state I polubredovom make important decisions about where to go next. And of course wrong. This in principle could have been avoided, I have made this mistake before, but at the time this state was particularly strong. When it was over, assessing what has happened with all the consequences, we have come to the conclusion that good that I got lost. This greatly enriched the internal Read more [...]
Spring shooting grouse on a lek is considered one of the most interesting and exciting hunts.
The first current are extremely short duration of time and few in number tokuyuschih birds.
Gradually increasing the number of birds begins tokovat, roosters moving on the ground, gather in large groups and form a large current. In the midst of the current to muster hen crows arrive, soon to make their nests near the current and begin to lay eggs. In certain places form the permanent tokovischa.
Favorite places for education are tokovisch winter fields and arable land adjacent to the forest edge, forest Read more [...]
Choosing a place for the fire
When choosing a place for a fire to take care not to start a fire. And even if you are alien to environmental issues, do not forget that your property may be affected, and health. Therefore, you can not build bonfires under trees and at least 10 meters away from them, on the moors near the reeds, dry grass and moss, in spruce and pine undergrowth, as in these places the fire spreads rapidly and is difficult to extinguish.
Choose a place sheltered from the wind, clear land in a circle with a diameter of 2 m from dry leaves, twigs, moss and dry grass. The site should Read more [...]
Take the option, when the rain comes for some time and is nearing completion, but not long downpour. In the latter case, as such, there is no sense in the fire. The principle is the same as in normal conditions: to organize the small-bore stuff for ignition, prepare middling and, indeed, what will feed the fire. To detail is paper and newspaper, dry pine needles and leaves, which can be found under trees and shrubs, or removing the top layer of wet, chips and small twigs, stripped of wet bark. Intermediate better to make the found logs, "pinch" of them sticks and chop into small Poleshko. Read more [...]
Frosty day in the campaign are not alone. They may be away from home ten and many more. There is a growing desire to throw off the tension and relax. Should not people finally feel the heat from all sides, and the blind, and to the right, and below, the continued reliability of heat and does not require any care to more frost has not kept?
This fatigue. It affects the mind, creates the mood. Resistance to it is given only to experience winter hikes - a special "winter experience", which did not even get in a stationary polar winter. He properties of polar travelers, Read more [...]
Tea - an integral part of camp life. Invigorates morning tea, afternoon tones, evening creates a favorable environment for communication. In cold weather, warm in hot weather thirst quencher, the word tea is irreplaceable! In campaigns tourists often seek to add to this drink medicinal herbs. Tea is fragrant and useful.
The healing properties of tea are directly dependent on the properties of herbs.
Tea with thyme.
This drink has analgesic and sedative effects, stimulates blood circulation. Increases blood pressure, helps the cough, good for the lungs and bronchi. In addition, thyme active Read more [...]
Perennial, up to 70 cm, with hollow stems, often at the base of purple, black pubescent with simple hairs, glands (reaching up to half of the stem) and stellate hairs (above). In addition to erect stems are almost always thin ascending shorter flowering shoots, flagellates, rarely short creeping underground and aboveground shoots. Leaves lanceolate or broadly, sparsely pubescent with simple hairs and bottom vein stellate, stem leaves 1-3. Inflorescence paniculate-umbrella, with (3) 10-25 baskets. Wrapper leaves 7-8 (9) mm long, usually without membranous border, sparsely pubescent with simple, Read more [...]
Hare - Occupant of open steppe and desert-steppe landscapes. In the forest area, he has penetrated gradually after deforestation and plowing of forest land. Hare habitat covers about two-thirds of the southern European part of the USSR and goes beyond the Urals to Omsk and Kazakhstan to the Kyzyl-Orda. Acclimatized in a number of regions of Siberia and the Far East, but large areas in the new areas have arisen.
In the field, hunting grounds hare drawn to trees and shrubs in the ravines, gullies, river valleys, to polezashchitnym plantings, shrubs and fallow tracts to small pins. In forest Read more [...]
Tents of the most common Gable tents in a "house" (Fig. 2). The most preferred of industrial - "pamirka." She often floor and roof are made of silver rubberized percale and therefore it is also called "silver." Height "pamirki" - 1.2 m, the net weight (without racks and pegs) - about 3 kg. It easily fit three people for the night, and if necessary - and four. Another suitable type of tent - "poludatka." It is slightly higher (1.5 m) and a little wider. But usually made of canvas and therefore weighs between 5 kg b. To it must be done awning Read more [...]
In the mountains of Kyzyl-paradise, and Temirshi Koshubay (Kazakh uplands) surki first appear from holes in the second half of March, the bulk - April 6-7, and the last - April 14 (Afanasyev, 1947 survey data). Some animals come out of the holes, punching solid snow, and in the mass - with the advent of the first green on thawed. Adults surki up from hibernation long before the exit holes, and young - before the exit. This set A. Afanasyev April 3 at digging holes with unopened marmots.
With the advent of green on thawed surki hard feed. In June, July and in early August behavior surkov Read more [...]
All the deserts of North America are mainly located in the western part of the continent, and they can be divided into four groups. The most northern - Great Basin Desert to the south it borders the Mojave Desert and further southwards - Sonora Desert. They form a single unit, but a little bit away from him, mostly in Mexico, is the fourth desert - Chihuahua. It is, in contrast to the three previously mentioned desert, is not in the West, but rather in the middle of the continent, about the same distance and from the Atlantic and from the Pacific Ocean. The northern part of this desert gets Read more [...]
Sapper shovel came over with a knife or an ax, most recently in the Russian army during the last Russian-Turkish war. Corps had to dig into the ground because of the increased rate of gun and rifle fire. Small blade became a satellite of every modern soldier. Her name "Sapper" is not quite correct, officially called a spade "a small infantry", but life has taken root, the term "Sapper". Over time, a shovel was used not only for its intended purpose, but also as a universal multi-tool and a very effective weapon. Using a shovel as a weapon was forced during World Read more [...]
According to my calendar went on Sunday, the thirty-third day of life on the island.
More than a month!
I decided that day to do nothing. In the morning just went down to the spring and washed, and the boat moved something out of the tent. Found in the locker mug to shine kick sand in it and boiled tea from the hips. Fire laid out right on the iron floor cabin, to the right of the door. When the door was opened, the smoke through a hole in the window of a well and pulled out in the cabin can breathe.
Then he began to whet the knife was found in his locker. Drove his brusku hour and a half, Read more [...]
A tree 10-15 m, sometimes up to 30 m in height. Trunk straight, slender, malovetvisty, with good development of up to 55 cm in diameter. The bark is gray, smooth in young specimens, the old cracked lengthwise grooved. Crohn shatrovid-tion or okrugyaoyaytsevidnaya. Twigs and branches are rare, strong, laterally compressed spines, reaching 1-2 cm in length, strongly dilated at the base and curved upwards. Olive-green shoots, with numerous light lenticels. The large leaves are often crowded on short shoots, 5 -, 9 -, and usually 7 palchatorazdelnye, rounded in outline, green above, glossy, lighter Read more [...]
Flint will help you build a fire in any weather, in rainy and cold weather. The rod is made of a special alloy, durable (up to 12,000 hits), the temperature cut out the spark reaches 3000C. The spark is cut with a knife or any sharp metal object. With Flint is easy to ignite paper, dry grass or other flammable materials.
Sparks from flint cut out with a knife, the temperature of 3000 ° C spark With Flint you can easily set fire paper, dry grass and bark. Flint is enough for 12,000 hits. Flint length - 11cm.
Flint different water resistance, Read more [...]
Although the march tourists usually little sick, though, going on a trip, it is necessary to know how, if necessary, to help himself and his companion.
First aid - perhaps the only section of tourist training, where the amount of knowledge to be known more widely than would be necessary simply marching practice. And, yet, it is the practice had largely guided, by selecting the material for this section - otherwise it could grow, threatening to drive out all the rest. Therefore, the information set out below does not replace the need for familiarity with first aid on the books specifically dedicated Read more [...]
Single biennial height 15-45 cm Stems quadrangular, brown. Lower leaves are 4-6 cm long and 4.5-6.5 cm wide, triangular-ovate, the base of wide, double-toothed on the edges, with large triangular-ovate teeth of the first order and second order sharp-toothed, with long petioles 5 - 8 cm to the top of the stem leaves are reduced in size, as the length of petioles, bracts sessile, all the leaves are thin, bright green. Stems, leaves and stalks from the bottom covered with long glandular hairs. Flowers are arranged in terminal pyramidal inflorescence. Calyx quinquepartite, with oblong-oval obtuse Read more [...]
Contrary to popular belief, folding knives are not a European invention, the second half of the XIX century, when the pocket knives, including a multi-disciplinary, began to produce and sell in Europe quite active. It was then that the Russian language has appeared and caught on the phrase "pocket knife", owing its origin is most often done with this knife work, namely "ochinyaniyu" goose feathers, which at that time were still using. But folding knives were in use in the countries of southern Europe, such as the south of France, in Spain and in Italy, in the XV century. Read more [...]