Drainage work

In the process forest hydroland should remain small forest swamps, wetlands and floodplains of the delta of the forest rivers and streams. In need of protection as alder swamp, located in the indigenous banks of the river valley. The artificial forest is almost 1/3 of the forest edge, the main species - pine and oak, are native species. In addition, cultured birch, walnut, aspen (a ravine stands), black alder, willow tree, poplar (in flood). Also apply to this end, some alien species of trees: larch Polish, Sukachev Siberian: North American, Siberian, and Far Western species of poplar, locust, Read more [...]
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Disinfects water

There are several methods of water disinfection. There are three main: the physical, chemical, natural. Now I will be discussing these methods in detail. It is physically able to disinfect water include filtration and boiling. Achieve in nature filtration at the molecular level to be able to hold the filter element all, including viruses and bacteria, is almost impossible. But just boiled for 10-15 minutes is sufficient, that would kill all the harmful germs. If it is likely that initially the water is very dirty, boiling should be increased to half an hour and then give water sludge. Then Read more [...]
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Determining Where wounded game

Injured animals or birds should always be finished off, otherwise they will go, and dying away, disappear and the hunter, and as a public value. Determine whether the injured animal or bird and where it is, even if the blood is not seen, it is possible for a number of attributes. If the animal falls after the shot and jumped up and quickly goes away, it means that bullet (Pellet) only stunned the beast, hitting the vertebrae in the lower part of the horn or slipped on his forehead. If the animal makes a big jump, pushing the front, rear or all four legs, so he shot in the lungs or liver, while Read more [...]
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Definition of weather on local features

On the person, to be in an emergency situation, it is noticeable and often the most decisive manner, affect the weather. They significantly affect his state of health, physical and mental condition, performance. Heavy rains, high winds and cold weather, debilitating heat often not easy to make it difficult to move around, but can become an insurmountable obstacle to the existence of man in this situation. Therefore, the ability to identify possible changes in the weather and atmospheric conditions at least the next few days or even hours gains in absolute autonomy of great importance. For Read more [...]
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Beaver. Introduction

Beaver - A mammal rodent (Rodentia Bowdich), a family of beavers (Castoridae Gray) - belongs to the only genus in the family Castor L. Members of this family are inhabitants of forest ponds and narrow coastal strip in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere. Age genus Castor is calculated from the Middle Miocene - about 15 million years old and the family Castoridae - from the Middle Oligocene, ie, a population of about 30 million years. During its existence the kind of growth fluctuated animals beavers were small, with modern marmot were gigantic. However, the function of the beaver Read more [...]
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People in the autonomous existence in the desert

Turkmen expedition of the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, to move to a new base in Tashkent. Carry forwarding the property entrusted to the driver Boris Bulatov and technology B. Goenka. July 24 they left the village, lost in the sands of the Karakum desert, and headed east. But at the appointed time, July 29, the car did not come to Tashkent. Only on the eightieth day one ground rescue teams found lost in the desert, and even a few days later about 60 km from Sayat-Aji sought out the bodies. From the little notebook entries found that on the second day the travelers Read more [...]
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What makes the situation of extreme?

Any arising in a person's life situation is considered by psychologists as a complex of subjective objective reality. In domestic and foreign science there are many classifications of situations. Some of them are divided into simple, difficult and extreme, while others - the neutral and conflict, and others - to everyday problems and the fourth - to situations of physical danger and uncertainty of the situation, the fifth - to freely choose to impose. But if you try to summarize all of these approaches, we can distinguish four main types of situations: 1. Simple (daily), which for Read more [...]
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Securing

In the water gone camping group must comply with the following basic safety rules: documents and money in a waterproof bag to keep with you in your pocket or hang Zip up on the chest; films, stock matches, dry alcohol stored in plastic (metal) containers with screw caps or boxes with tight lid, wrapped by its connection with the case wide tape or in a tightly tied plastic bags; in bags made of polyethylene to keep the tent, bedding, extra clothes, underwear, food, afraid of moisture spare oars, vodosplavnye means backpacks with personal items, extra shoes, a bucket with utensils Read more [...]
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Coltsfoot

One of the first flowers appear familiar to all coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara). This bright baskets on stems, covered with very short brown leaves. Coltsfoot flowers densely covers with their suns, railway slopes, slopes of ravines, river banks - all dry and sunny places. For flowering it necessarily need full sun, then the leaves can grow in the shade. Their shade tolerance shown by their very dark color - the more chlorophyll, the shade-tolerant plants. If, during the flowering stems are rarely more than 6-7 cm, fruiting they reach 25 cm and no wonder. Seeds mother and stepmother with the Read more [...]
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Chapter 31. Back in the ranks

Return to normal.- Worked as a designer bundle boat.- Mushrooms! Dearest! - Mushroom memories.- Man overboard: past and dreams After I wrote it, carefully drawing the letters, I really could not have to do anything, just lay and thought any branch of the main themes, and how it all as I am concerned. Inspired, I tried to read the Gospel, but nothing worked. Think about a recent interview seemed a lot more interesting. Why read it when I told myself Sawa - failed experiment, they say, should be - Review and repeat. Defectiveness of the experiment - a self-evident thing, only a few of the Read more [...]
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Choice of accommodations and the unit bivouac

Much of what appears here on the location for a camp may not seem particularly important or even secondary. And, yet, it is not. This is the case when no trifles. To little to convince the reader, tell a tragic story of expedition life surveyors. It is an old and, in general, not very remarkable story, it does not have any exciting events that are often described in adventure novels. The death of one of the members of the expedition occurred at a fairly mundane circumstances, as is often the case in real life. Topographical squad trainee Novosibirsk topographical College Theodore Prokhorenko Read more [...]
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Equipment: fixing

Depending on the conditions of travel gear skier may use different types of connections that can be divided into 3 groups.   1. Cross-mount type "rotofello" - Easy, rigidly fixed toe and easy to handle. Used mostly in the non-durable and low-tech route to navigate the piste. In more difficult conditions affect not only disadvantages mounts as shortcomings shoes produced by industry for this type of attachment. These shoes are very low and it does not protect the ankle from sprains and bruises. For long term use, especially when wet shoes welts crushed, holes in the soles Read more [...]
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What trees grow in our forests?

In the forests of Russia is growing more than two thousand trees, but only a few are common. Softwood - and European larch, Scots pine and Siberian (cedar), spruce, Siberian fir. All are powerful, tall trees, but especially powerful Siberian cedar: height - 40-42 m, trunk diameter of 2 m Larch different from all conifer that drops needles in the winter, to which owes its name. Hardwood common oak, silver birch and downy, aspen, small-leaved lime, black alder, maple, ash, common, and in the lowland forests - various species of willow. Oak - a majestic tree, a symbol of power and longevity in Read more [...]
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Cats paw nettle

Herbaceous perennial plant belovoylochnoe 8-25 cm tall, with a woody rootstock and usually numerous creeping sterile shoots. Flowering stems are erect, with 5-10 leaves, pressed to the stem. Leaves lanceolate or spatulate, most of them collected in the rosette, glabrous or both sides belovoylochnye. Baskets are dioecious (plants are dioecious, which is reflected in the species name), with a diameter of 5-6 mm, are collected in common apical corymbose-capitate inflorescences. Bracts at the top of white or pink. Male flowers are tubular, frequently with a pestle, but sterile, white, female - Read more [...]
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Cargo – eccentric

Most recently, I thought that the presence of "fish" Pavlova, Yu Chaplygin (catching himself on his "fish"), any good new in this field to invent, in principle, impossible. On one of fishings Yu Chaplygin shown in action completely new construction cost for foam fish. It cargo-eccentric (playing) design B. Perevozchikova. A game at "porolonki" I have never seen. It's not even "porolonka"And"porolonka-spoon "with parusyaschey game in the fall, and periodic shifts in the horizontal plane. In closed basins with a similar design spinning bow Read more [...]
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Campanula rotundifolia

Perennial herbaceous plant height of 15-60cm, resistant creeping rhizome, forming small tufts. Stems usually numerous, densely leafy. Basal leaves and leaves of short shoots netsvetuschih rounded-cordate or reniform, 5-20 mm in length and a width, coarsely toothed or almost entire, often dying by flowering, stem-lanceolate to narrow-linear (tapering towards the top of the plant). Flowers on long stalks, drooping or inclined, are collected in the apical spreading paniculate inflorescence. Calyx obconical, with linear-subulate teeth, pressed to the rim or deviate from it. Corolla blue, 12-20 Read more [...]
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Building a snow shelter

The basic rules of construction When organizing a winter emergency bivouac victims forget or do not know that to escape from their main enemies - the sweltering cold and biting wind can be with snow. Traditional methods of building shelters in the harsh winter of the situation just does not fit, because they do not provide the most important thing - windproof and heat retention. Snow also is available, a plastic material, easily treatable. Do not build a shelter at the base of the ski slopes, at the sites of possible rock falls under the rotten and tilted trees. With regular stearic candles Read more [...]
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Bream

Bream body high, laterally compressed, covered with thick, stubborn scales. His head was small, the mouth small, semi-inferior, retractable into a tube. The dorsal fin is high but short anal fin is twice the length of the spinal. Caudal fin with a low-cut and a long lower lobe. Colouring bream depends on habitat conditions. Lake bream, usually darker river. Overall body color is silver. Head, back and upper sides of the blackish-gray. The belly is white. The fins are gray. Colouring young bream lighter older individuals. Males during spawning covered whitish-yellowish bumps wedding attire, Read more [...]
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Food in the coastal zone

The coastal zone of warm seas and oceans are found crustaceans - lobster (Homarus gammarus, H. americanus) and crayfish (Polinurus vulgaris), which are not inferior lobster size, but stripped of their powerful claws. Lobster and crayfish caught with harpoons or vertices, woven from ropes, parachute straps, flexible branches, palm leaf fibers. The tricks at the vertices lay rotting meat fish. Richest wildlife tidal zone. During the hours when the ocean recedes, exposing the extensive sand flats, where you can catch crabs and shrimp, collect clinging to boulders, debris, rocks and coral barnacles Read more [...]
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Knotweed

The most familiar to all of the family Polygonaceae - knotweed or bird grechishka (Polygonum aviculare), or grass-muravka. You may not know what it's called, but you know it "in person" is mandatory. Even in the center of the city a no-no, but will make its way among asflta thin stalk with small ovate leaves and tiny white or pink flowers. It is an annual plant, vzobnovlyaemoe overwintered in the ground seeds of last year. Knotweed appears later, in June, only rises, but it fully lives up to its name - it is growing very rapidly and within a month of its bushes completely cover Read more [...]
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