Modern beaver is the largest member of the order of rodents (Rodentia) of the Northern Hemisphere. It belongs to the suborder and family Sciuromorphae Castoridae, now has only one race.
For the period from the Oligocene in the Tertiary to Quaternary Holocene noted only 23 kinds of this family. 21 of them are kind of related to the Tertiary. In the Pleistocene in the northern hemisphere there are only 5 genera, including giant otters Trogontherium kind in the Palearctic genera Castoroides Paradipoides and in the Nearctic. In Holocene in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere is found Read more [...]
Great, and lake Manych-Gudilo.
It is a far-glory of his generosity, the beauty of his unkind disposition. Still, the lake is almost Sea, situated among the arid steppes of Kalmykia. Its water bitter-salty depths greater coast low. And there on the lake island ... Small, flat, barely visible from the water, the islands on the lake Manych-Gudilo virtually impassable from the abundance of them arranged on bird nests. Live here side by side, and gulls, and ducks and herons and spoonbills. But the 'royal' bird islands, pelicans. Next to these giants of herring gulls seem smaller lake, Read more [...]
Russian Armed Forces - the military organization of the Russian Federation, is designed for the defense of the Russian state, protect the freedom and independence of Russia, one of the most important instruments of political power. What should a person, will the fate of being one on one with a severe nature, away from populated areas, in the forest, the mountains or the desert? What must be done to save lives? How to signal distress get water and food, When supplies run out, how to make a fire in bad weather, build shelters from materials to protect from the rain, cold or heat of the sun? Read more [...]
Signal mirror, or as it is called in the literature - heliograph, which literally means "writing the sun," explains its purpose.
It is estimated that the brightness of the light signal light spot at the angle of the sun at 90 ° C is nearly 7 million candles. The flash signal mirror on a cloudless, sunny day shows up with a plane flying at a height of 1 - 2 km, a distance of 20 - 25 km, and in some cases - up to 40 km. Signal mirror can give a signal, not only during the day but at night the moon is full and even in foggy dymke.Izvestno many types of signal mirrors, including the recently Read more [...]
As a result of the industrial boom of 90-s of the XIX century. concentration of production and the labor force in Russia has increased, and the process has accelerated the growth of capitalist monopolies, especially after the industrial crisis of 1900-1903,. During this period, that is, at the turn of the XX century, Russia entered the highest and last stage of capitalism - imperialism. But education, capitalist monopolies in Russia combined with the remnants of serfdom. In addition, Russian tsarism and capitalism were in financial and economic dependence on foreign capital. However, a large Read more [...]
Status. Rare species with suboptimal degradable, declining numbers and declining habitat are vulnerable to factors otnosheniiyu biogeotsenologicheskogo human or nature.
Distribution. The area covers the southern part of the mixed grass steppe and forest-steppe zone of the northern part of the subzone feather grass steppes of the Russian Plain. The east boundary of reach right bank. Volga River, in the south - to the latitude Kamyshin the west follows the line of Dnepropetrovsk - Millerovo, in the north - to the Oka-Volga watershed. In ranneistoricheskoe time (Holocene) speckled ground squirrel Read more [...]
Annuals and herbaceous perennials 5-200 cm high. Propagation: All.
Contain flavoiondy, izotiotsnaiaty and higher fatty acid established structure. Allocated to the fixed oil from the seeds of 37.2% A. sagittata (Bertol.) DC, mustard oil. Detected alkaloids, coumarins, saponins, vitamni C.
Medicinal. Therapeutic action - fever, detoxification - the seeds of A. pendula L. Indications - diseases of the digestive system: the diseases of the digestive system - Supervision. Part A. pendula, hernia - A. sagittata, diarrhea, colic - Hopes. Part A. glabra (L.) Bernh. (Syn. Turritis glabra L.); Read more [...]
I'm pretty easy on the Tools group of this size. But things change, and at the moment this is my constant multitool addition EDC knife. Of course it all depends on the task and should be taken in proportion. But for me personally in the city, that's enough. Also make tools just feast for the eyes. Read more [...]
A fire pit should be open, but at the same time protected from the wind. Would be the best forest glade with any natural obstacle - a large stone mound of soil - which can cover fire from strong winds and act as a reflector of heat.
You can not hold a fire directly at the trees, especially dry, and in conifer saplings, fallen trees near the rubble, dry grass, moss, reeds. It is dangerous to make a fire on the moors. It's easy to let fall by a campfire in the spruce forest. Therefore, a fire pit, as well as the space around a meter and a half clear of dry grass, pine needles, moss and twigs. Read more [...]
To shoot with a dead bird skins must have scissors (split), medium size, always with one blunt and the other pointed end, a narrow sharp scalpel or knife, two - three different sizes forceps with blunt ends and one tweezers with sharp edges.
Bird should try to bring to the place shooting skins in such a way that the feathers were wrinkled and transfer, to get blood, feces, etc. For this shot, if they bleed, sprinkled potato flour. In the throat of a beak put cotton or dry moss. Feathers gently corrected and bird dipped upside down in a paper bag, which is carefully placed in a bag.
Before Read more [...]
Self-rescue without equipment
Author: Cheurin GS
Size: 1.4 MB
The book tells about the experience of survival of indigenous northern peoples, ancient techniques and traditions of many peoples of the countries of the CIS. According to the approved concept, the security is not primarily equipment and pre-treatment, and obsheniya culture with the world, which allows us to prevent the emergency situation. In the case of extreme situations call for action in the absence of a pre-prepared equipment and medicines. We also consider the interpersonal problems that arise in real Read more [...]
Under the sea mammal hunting means harvesting of marine animals - pinnipeds and cetaceans. The skins of some marine animals of the order of pinnipeds used fur industry, so these animals are included in the fur resources of the USSR. Cetaceans skins are of no interest for the fur industry.
Pinnipeds - close to the beasts of prey of the order, but differ from them in adaptation to life in water. Trunk they torpedoobranoe, fur short or absent, legs - similar to the fins flippers, which contributes to the rapid movement of these animals in the water. Some species of pinnipeds, when moving on Read more [...]
The absence of salt and spices food deprives the usual taste, and this is especially true with the need to use non-traditional types of food, the salt, pepper, vinegar, mustard, or help to overcome prejudice, and sometimes disgust for what to eat, not to die of hunger. Where do we get these so often necessary, additives, without which the food is fresh and unappetizing?
Among the indigenous population of the Kostroma region to date There is a strange custom - production and consumption of so-called black salt. For its preparation take coarse salt, add soaked in water, rye bread, Read more [...]
Ruff-Nosar (biryuchok, Bubyr) - Gym-nocephalus acerina-not very well known fish, which in some places is just right to put them in the Red Book. From ordinary ruff it differs primarily by the presence of "The Nose." This fish head is flattened, lips stretched in the form of a proboscis that gives Nosara some similarities with the head of pike. And he extended much further south than usual perch habitat: only inhabits the river basins of the Azov and Black Seas. Love ruff-Nosar rapid and clean river has led to the number of representatives of this species almost everywhere considerably Read more [...]
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V. daucoides Gaertn. (Syn. Ammi visnaga (L) Lam.) - Biennial up to 100 cm high. Distribution: Caucasus.
Contains coumarins (including furo and piranokumariny) chromones, flavonoids and higher fatty acid ustaiovleiioy structure. Allocated 0.2% of essential oil of Subtitle. hours, 19.2% fatty oil NZ fruit. Found poliatsetileiovye Comm., Polysaccharides.
Medicinal. Therapeutic action - antispasmodic, vasodilator, sedative - fruits (State registry. 2000), diuretic - Hopes. hours, fruit laxative - fruit. Indications - kidney and urinary tract: in urolithiasis, renal colic, acute and chronic Read more [...]
Status. Migratory species. In the north, N. Volga common and widely distributed; vulnerable to anthropogenic factors.
Distribution. The area stretches from the north of Western Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East to the Urals, Altai, and the Himalayas. In Russia, met in the middle and southern regions of the European part, in the east to the south of West Siberia and Western Altai. It inhabits the whole of the region, but the species is most common in the right bank. Geography vechornytsi meetings in the Volga regions of the relatively wide, but here the abundance of these animals Read more [...]
S. chinensis Benth. – Single, biennial 15-70 cm high. Distribution: The Far East.
Contains monoterpeioidy (including iridoids), sesquiterpenoids, alkaloids, benzofuryl-HN, and phenols, phenolic glycosides, aromatic and aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, fatty acids, lactones, alitsiklichesie alicyclic hydrocarbons and other Comm. established structure. Highlighted the essential oil.
Medicinal. Therapeutic action – haemostatic. Indications – injury: with festering wounds.
Annuals, herbaceous perennials, and 10 cm high. Distribution: Arctic, the European part, the Caucasus, Western and Eastern Snbnr. Information available for S. saginoides (L.) H. Karst. Saponyany found.
Medicinal. Indications – pain: when stomachalgia – Hopes. h Stern. For birds seeds.
Trees up to 40 m high. Propagation: All.
Contain lignans, flavonoids (including anthocyanins), chalcones, moio-, sesqui-, di-, and triterpenoids, steroids, karotiioidy, glipity, carbohydrates and nitrogen Conn., fenilpro-paioidy (Seitsov et al, 1996), phenols, feioliye glikoeidy to 9% in the kidney P. alba L, phenolic acids, esters, aromatics, alcohols, ketones and other aromatic Conn., fatty acids, glycerides, higher aliphatic hydrocarbons and alcohols ustaiovleiioy structure. Marked tannins to 18.6% from the leaves and fixed oil to 5.5% of the seeds P. alba, essential oil to 2.3% of the buds Read more [...]