Cherkan is a burrow of airplanes. The principle of action for all Cherkans is the same. In different fishing areas, Cherkans differ only in the shape of the pressing device and the details of the guard.
Cherkan, wooden portable burrowing aircraft, device, operating principle, guard.
In the wooden frame, the cherkan moves along the guide slots from top to bottom, the T-shaped pressure rod under the action of the force of a tight-knuckle or multi-turn cylindrical steel spring. The gatehouse with the watchman interact with the help of rope traction. Scheme a shows a cherkan with a square frame knocked down from planks. In the middle part, through the holes in the planks, a bow is threaded and strengthened, below is a nut.
In the lower part of the side planks, on the inside, grooves are cut through which the T-shaped pressure lever (IV) moves under the action of the bowstring. Gatehouse (II) – a stick with a pencil thickness and a length of 5-8 cm. At one end, retreating a centimeter from the edge, a long cord is attached to the gatehouse connecting the gatehouse with the end of another of the same stick-hook (III).
A short lace is tied to the upper crossbeam. The guard in the form of a thin stick (I) in the position raised above the nut rests against the ends in the grooves and prevents the guard (II) from twisting out from under the pressure lever (IV). To guard the cherkan, the pressure lever together with the bow string is raised up. The bowstring is picked up with a short shoulder of a chalak, which blocks the main strength of the bow. Next, pull the lace with the gatehouse, catching it with a short shoulder to the cross member of the pressure lever, and the free end rests on the guard, raised above the door.
The principle of operation of the norol samolov Cherkan.
Cherkan of this design works as follows. The animal, crawling between the cross member of the pressure rod and the nut, presses on the guard. It goes down (diagram, and I) and releases the gatehouse (II), which turns out, releasing the chalak (III), and with it the bowstring, and the bow fires, pressing the cross member of the pressure rod to the nut (IV). Circassians work on the same principle on the schemes d, d.
Features of the device of the burrowing cherkan.
Onion is the main detail in the cherkan. Reliability of work and catchiness of an autoband depends on its elasticity. Onions are recommended to be made from well-dried wood of euonymus, honeysuckle, or from a shallow larch trunk. It is possible from cedar and spruce, but from them the onions are weaker. Wooden onions can be replaced with a steel rod, preferably not just one thick, but several thin, tied together. The bowstring is made rope, and many hunters make it out of tendons.
Cherkan with a multi-turn coil spring.
Cherkan (scheme b) with a frame is made of flyer, and the bow is replaced by a multi-turn cylindrical spring working in compression. In the lower part, the flyer is connected by a nut to which a T-shaped pressure rod is pressed by a spring. Grooves are cut out on the inside of the flyer, along which the cross member of the pressure rod moves freely. For stability of the rod, a hole is drilled at the top of the flyer. A gatehouse is tied on a lace there.
To guard this samovol, the spring is squeezed, the pressure rod is lifted upward, picking up the crossbar with the short shoulder of the gatehouse (II), which gives it a vertical position, and so that it does not turn outward, its end rests on the guard (I), which is blocked in the lower part of the passage between the nut and the cross member of the pressure lever.
The sequence of this cherkan is almost the same as the previous one. The only difference is that when you press on the guard (I), the free end of the gate (II) is released, which, twisting out from under the cross member, releases the pressure lever. The sensitivity of a guard with a gatehouse without a chelak is much worse. If the spring is very tight or the bow is taut, the guard may cause a delay, which in the fishery of the smallest fur-bearing animals can lead to breaches.
Cherkan with wooden rod frames.
The frame of the cherkan is bent from a whole rod of elm, birch or another tree, amenable to bending in a steamed form. Pick up a rod with the same thickness (2-3 cm) along the entire desired length, mark the places of bends and cut into them by 2/3 of the thickness in the form of a right angle with a rounded top (diagram B, detail 1). Having well steamed these cuts in hot ash, they are bent. The free ends in the upper part of the frame are connected by the lateral sides, having preliminarily cut out half-cylinders in them by a size slightly exceeding the diameter of the pressure lever rod. Then the ends on the sides are planed and connected with nails or wire (diagram c, detail 2).
In this cherkan, the chelak plays a dual role. With the small shoulder, he fully assumes the strength of the bow, and with the long shoulder he works like a gatehouse, on the free end of which he wears a loop from a SIM card, acting as a guard. At a wary trap, taut sims (I) block the passage over the threshold. They are connected by one rod – a cord with a loop encircling the pressure rod and the free lower end of the hook. The animal, crawling through the threshold, pulls the sim card (I) and pulls the loop (II) from the tip of the chelak (III), which turns out and releases the bowstring, acting by the force of the pulled bow on the pressure lever (II).
The cherkan in diagram d is also made on the basis of a frame bent from a whole rod. This frame differs in that its free ends are fastened together with a nut, pointed and lowered down. Stuck in snow or in the ground, they give the cherkan the necessary stability. The bow is tied to the frame firmly with a cord or wire, since the pressure rod has no guides and points of support. Otherwise, the alertness and operation of this samovol is the same as the previous.
Cherkan with a box.
Cherkan on diagram d is mounted not with a frame, but with a hollowed out tray and the pressure lever in it is replaced by a pressure paddle. Guides for it are the back wall of the tray and the middle of the wooden part of the bow. To move the bowstring, cuts are made in the side walls of the tray. The passage through this cherkan is limited by a round hole cut into the wall of the tray. He is guarded with the help of a chelak, a guard and guards.
Cherkan with a false floor.
Cherkan, depicted in Scheme e, differs from all the described wooden lords in that two planes are clamped instead of a nut and a pressing rod of a caught animal. The lower platform serves as the basis. A flyer is tightly attached to it, on the sides of which a wooden board freely moves with holes made in it, corresponding in width and size to the fork.
A pressure rod attached to a bow string was firmly attached to this plank with several supports. His broomstick and gatehouse are in the form of a rod suspended on a SIM card, a guard is in the form of a false raised floor – a thin plate, which on one side is worn on the fork shoulder on one side, and on the other side holds the gatehouse in the cocked position.
When guarding this cherkan, a pressure plane is lifted and the gatehouse grabs it with the short shoulder over the edge, and the free end is hooked to the opening of the raised floor. The bait is suspended in the middle of the pressure plate in such a way that the animal that visited the trap, stretching to it from either side, steps on the false floor and undoes the airplanes.
Based on materials from the book Hunting Samolov and Unauthorized Fishing. Directory.
Gerasimov Yu. A.