Collapse, causes, symptoms and first aid for a collapse state.

Collapse is a condition in which, due to acute vascular insufficiency, a sharp decrease in blood pressure occurs. This leads to a decrease in blood supply to organs, which can provoke the development of shock and pose a threat to the life of the patient. 

Collapse, causes, symptoms and first aid for collapse.

There are many factors that lead to collaptoid states. A drop in arterial pressure can be noted both for relatively “non-serious”, easily removable causes found in relatively healthy people (overheating and dehydration of the body, lowering blood glucose levels), and in very dangerous conditions: severe infections (meningitis, sepsis), poisoning with bacterial toxins and drugs, massive bleeding.

more often than normal (for an adult, from 60 to 80 beats per minute are considered the norm). Due to low blood pressure, finding a pulse on a hand can sometimes be quite difficult. In some cases, the pulse may be irregular, arrhythmic. Sometimes, in a patient with collapse, a vein collapse on the neck is noteworthy..

The large veins that pass there are usually clearly visible and pulsate to the rhythm of the heart. In a patient with collapse, they practically do not protrude under the skin, and when the heart contracts, on the contrary, they retract and fall. The next symptom is a change in breathing. Often the patient takes shallow frequent inhalations and exhalations. Perhaps a violation of consciousness when a person becomes estranged, with a delay in reaction to external stimuli and monosyllabic answers to questions. In general, collapse from the side is very similar to a fainting state.

First aid for collapse and collapse state.

The issue of emergency care in case of collapse is rather complicated, because sometimes, in order to establish its cause, it requires the participation of specialists with the obligatory carrying out of various laboratory tests. So more often, a patient in a collapoid state can be helped by few. With a collapse, hospitalization is required; the patient is transported while lying on a stretcher.

Before help arrives, the patient needs to be laid down, to provide him with access to fresh air, to offer water. If the person is unconscious, it is better to turn his head to the side – for an unknown reason for the collapse, vomiting cannot be excluded and the possible entry of vomit into the respiratory tract must be prevented. In case of collapse, the patient must always lie down, experts also recommend raising the legs of the lying patient so that the blood supplies the vital organs, including the brain.

This can help maintain consciousness and establish contact with a person. The latter is very important, because the next step is to try to determine what caused the collapse, and this is easier to do by talking to the patient. He can provide valuable information, for example, about poisoning that has occurred or a sharp start in chest pain, which will help suggest myocardial infarction. Another way to discover the cause of the collapse is to assess the patient’s appearance and environment. This can only help in obvious cases, for example, with severe bleeding..

Further assistance depends on the situation. This can be a stop of bleeding during an injury, emergency measures for myocardial infarction, gastric lavage with an overdose of drugs, an increase in blood glucose in a patient with diabetes who injected insulin and forgot to eat. Unfortunately, such obvious cases are infrequent, therefore, usually the task of a person providing emergency care is to monitor the patient’s condition until the arrival of the ambulance team and readiness for resuscitation.

It is dangerous to administer some medications without knowing the causes of the collapse; this can provoke deterioration and death of the patient. A person in this position needs emergency medical care; and the sooner it is provided, the better.

Based on the book “Quick help in emergency situations”.
Kashin S.P..

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