Compression syndrome, compression of brain tissue, as a dangerous and serious complication of traumatic brain injury.

Compression syndrome occurs during prolonged compression of body parts, such as limbs, in emergency situations associated with explosions, earthquakes, avalanches, etc.. 

Compression syndrome, compression of brain tissue, as a dangerous and serious complication of traumatic brain injury.

The main causes of squeezing syndrome are the cessation of blood flow in the squeezed limb and mechanical trauma to muscle tissue and surrounding soft tissues. If compression lasts for more than two hours, this leads to the accumulation of metabolic products and free myoglobin protein in limb tissues, which in its free state has a pronounced toxic effect.

consists in applying a tourniquet above the place of compression with a mandatory note on the time of its application. After removing the entire limb, a tight bandage is applied to it, and the limb is necessarily splinted with any materials at hand. The victim is given a plentiful sweet drink, if possible, blood-substituting solutions are administered intravenously, with severe pain painkillers. Further treatment is carried out only in a surgical hospital..

Brain tissue compression.

The most formidable and serious complication of craniocerebral trauma. It usually develops due to prolonged bleeding for a long time and an increase in intracranial hematoma or as a result of increased blood pressure and intracranial fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) accompanying a head injury. Promotes increased intracranial blood flow and pain. Fragments of the bones of the skull can also contribute to compression..

The consequence of prolonged squeezing is the displacement of the brain substance and its wedging into the occipital foramen, which is especially life-threatening, since in this case, the medulla oblongata, which regulates vital processes and body functions, such as blood circulation, respiration, thermoregulation, is damaged. Mortality in this case is very high and reaches 60% in stationary conditions and almost 100% in extreme situations and autonomous mode of group existence.

Symptoms of Brain Compression.

At the very beginning, a severe, up to an uncontrollable scream, headache and often with vomiting of a sudden, profuse and not bringing relief.
At the initial stages, the hearing is preserved, but as it develops, it gradually fades away.
The reaction of the pupils to the environment persists until the cardiac arrest.
Photophobia and orbital pain develop.
With the development of edema, the victim quickly faints.

Cerebral edema and its subsequent compression can occur not only at the time of the injury, but within 2 weeks from the time it was received. At first, this is a direct consequence of the injury, and later a consequence of the infectious process, which is possible even 1-2 weeks after it. The state of the victim over time is constantly deteriorating, and repeated loss of consciousness just indicates the process of increasing brain compression. An effective treatment is decompression trepanation of the skull, which can be carried out in the field, of course, is impossible.

The victim can be helped only by slowing down this process, but the time is inexorably at the disposal of the group for only a day or even several hours. The probability of encountering infectious complications of an open head injury in extreme conditions of autonomous existence is practically zero. This is due to the fact that if evacuation to a medical hospital is delayed for several days, then the probability of surviving a victim with such an injury is almost unrealistic.

Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.

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