Cast iron cookware has been used for a very long time. This is an alloy of iron with carbon, in which more than 2% of carbon. For the manufacture of utensils, chrome alloyed cast iron is used. This makes it more rust resistant. May include impurities of silicon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur. The increased carbon content makes cast iron harder, resistant to deformation, i.e. more brittle.
Cookware made of cast iron and copper, advantages and disadvantages, compatibility with products, mechanical and domestic properties, thermal conductivity.
Cast iron cookware heats up rather slowly. She has a relatively low thermal conductivity. But due to the bulkiness of the dishes, the heat is distributed more or less evenly and is stored for a long time. Therefore, cast irons and gooseberries are good for dishes that require long cooking. To burn food to the surface of cast iron, you must try hard, but even then it protects the hostess’s nerves, since traces of her oversight are not visible on the black surface.
The disadvantages of cast iron include its tendency to rust from water. Therefore, cast iron dishes after washing should try to dry quickly. And also heavy cast iron (specific gravity 7.7 g / cc), porous and may fall if it falls.
Cast iron cookware is not afraid of overheating on fire, it only benefits her. The remaining types of modern utensils, including stainless steel, cannot be heated. Cooked dishes should not be left in cast-iron dishes. For example, buckwheat porridge from contact with cast iron blackens. Enamelled cast iron or non-stick coating does not have these drawbacks..
Here, for example, cast iron cookware Staub (France). It has a coating of several layers of enamel, including a primer. The coating is applied both from the inside of the dishes, and from the outside. The outer surface of these products is covered with black or colored enamel. Only black matte enamel is used for the inside..
With prolonged use, this inner coating acquires anti-adhesive properties. The oil used in cooking over time penetrates deep into the pores of the enamel coating. This gives non-stick properties to the bottom and walls of the dishes..
Copper cookware, advantages and disadvantages, compatibility with products, mechanical and household properties, thermal conductivity.
In 1987, at a archaeological site of the ancient city, a pan made of a copper alloy was found. According to experts, she is about four and a half thousand years old. Copper cookware has prevailed in the kitchen for hundreds of years. Until the beginning of the 20th century, boilers, pans, stewpan, ladles were made everywhere from it. Human observation has long distinguished this material as the best for the manufacture of kitchen utensils..
Much later, on the basis of scientific measurements, it turned out that copper has the highest thermal conductivity of all materials suitable for the manufacture of cookware. This figure is even higher for silver only, but using silver for kitchen utensils, you know, is impractical. So copper was later superseded by cheaper aluminum from kitchens..
In some houses, copper basins with a long handle are still preserved, in which it was customary to cook jam. In a copper basin, it never burns due to the fact that heat quickly and evenly spreads throughout the bottom, without forming foci of overheating. Yes, and cooking is faster.
Copper is a shiny soft metal with a beautiful pinkish-red color. Its specific gravity is 8.92 g / cu. see, it is much heavier than iron. This metal, although chemists classify it as noble, cannot be called chemically inert. In humid air, a greenish film (patina) forms on the surface of copper in the presence of carbon dioxide. It protects the metal from further destruction..
When heated in air, copper dims and eventually blackens due to the formation of an oxide layer on the surface. When this happens with dishes, these stains can easily be removed with conventional dishwashing detergents. Then rinse and wipe dry. If you use copper dishes that are not purified from oxides, they interact with acids and alkalis, which are most foods.
Often used copper alloys:
Brass (copper plus zinc).
Bronze (copper alloys with different elements, mainly with tin, aluminum, beryllium, lead, cadmium and others).
Copper-nickel alloys, including cupronickel and nickel silver.
These alloys acquire new properties compared to pure copper (corrosion resistance, hardness), but none of them can be compared with it in thermal conductivity. Today, from copper and brass utensils, you can often find cezves, or the so-called Turks for making coffee.
To avoid the harmful effects of copper oxides, the Turks from the inside tinny (cover with a layer of food tin). In fact, copper, bronze and brass are now also used in the manufacture of cookware, but in combination with stainless steel, giving steel qualities that it lacks.