Coating, washing and degreasing hides are the last preparatory steps before directly hiding. The hardening of skins, preserved with mustard powder, is done after soaking, and wet-salted after rinsing in clean water to remove excess salt from the mezra. Skinning of hides is carried out in the same way as in primary processing, mandatory before fresh-dry or dry-salted preservation.
Coating, washing and degreasing the skins before they are directly made, degreasing the skins with clay.
However, even skins with well-cleared before conservation cannabis should be carefully examined after soaking, since previously not noticed remains of subcutaneous muscles and fat may come to light. They need to be cleaned, and the entire surface of the mezra should be slightly scraped with a knife for additional loosening in the direction of the hair roots.
do not need, and their mediation is carried out after shooting. Skins of hares, in which hypodermic films are often stronger than the skin itself, can be processed without coating. In this case, during the initial processing, only cuts of meat and pieces of fat are removed, and the complete cleaning of the meat is carried out in the process of dressing itself..
Washing and degreasing hides.
Washing and degreasing the skins is done differently depending on the fatness of the skins. It is not possible to completely remove the fat with a coat. The thickness of the skin of any skins, even those that seem completely non-greasy, contains fat, which reduces the effectiveness of further dressing processes.
The greasy skins of a bear, badger, raccoon dog, sometimes a wolf and a jackal undergo a double treatment: first in a special degreasing solution, and then in a washing one. For skins that are not particularly high in fat, just washing is enough.
The composition of the degreasing solution:
7-8 g of washing (soda ash) soda per 1 liter of water (or a third of a glass of soda per bucket of water). You can use caustic soda (5 g per 1 liter of water) or trisodium phosphate, which is sometimes sold in hardware stores as a means for degreasing during washing (half a glass per bucket of water). The solution is prepared warm (30-35 degrees).
The skins in the solution should float freely, and they should be periodically mixed (the more often, the better). If the solution is very dirty and becomes rusty brown, it must be changed. When degreasing with soda, careful monitoring of the fluidity of the hair is necessary. Not later than after 2-3 hours, the mezdra of the skins should turn white and its fat content will cease to be felt (the mezdra creaks under the fingers).
A longer stay of skins in a degreasing solution is undesirable. This can lead to a decrease in the strength of the skin tissue. After degreasing, go to the wash. The skins are removed from the degreasing solution and rinsed with clean water, and then transferred to the washing solution.
The composition of the washing solution:
100 g of laundry soap, crushed on a grater, per 10 l (bucket) of water. You can add one or two tablespoons of washing soda. For washing skins, conventional detergents in solution are suitable, as for washing clothes. If the packaging indicates the possibility of washing at temperatures below plus 40 degrees.
In the washing solution, the skins are not soaked, but are actively mixed and washed with hands. Wool is also stretched until a characteristic creak appears. Washing lasts no more than 20-30 minutes. At the end of washing, the skin is rinsed well in clean water until the remnants of detergents are completely removed..
It is imperative to ensure that the skins are clean and completely degreased both from the side of the skins and from the side of the coat. Well-washed and rinsed skins are wrung out (without twisting), the wool is brushed off from the water, and the coat is wiped with clean, dry rags.
Previously, clay was used to degrease skins, as it absorbs fat well. Dry clay was crushed and sieved. The resulting powder was kneaded with water until thick sour cream. This clay dough was smeared on the mezra with a layer of 1 to 3 cm and left the skin to dry in a warm dry place in the unfolded state, with the mezra up. After drying, the clay crust that absorbed the fat was knocked down from the suspended skin with sticks.
Then, to remove residual clay, the skin was washed with water. They also used dry clay powder – they rubbed them with mezdra and then beat out the skin. Clay powder was rubbed with Mezdra several times, until the fat ceased to stand out from the skin. Only skins with tight-fitting hair were degreased with clay dough. Use powder for any skins.
However, the use of synthetic detergents is preferable, since it gives a more complete degreasing of the skins necessary for the successful conduct of the basic operations of the dressing itself.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Petrunin V.B., Nikashina E.B., Kupriyanov F.G., Nikerov Yu.N., Rymalov I.V..