Doses of radiation and exposure to ionizing radiation

The article Radiation. Part 1. Radioactivity and radiation background. It is considered a nature of radiation and a radioactivity. Article Radiation. Part 2. Means and methods of measurement. Radioactivity and background radiation, on dosimeters. We also didn’t need to panic if you’re not happy with the device. In the third part of the article about Radiation we will tell you about the radiation dose …

  • Exposure Dose
  • Absorbed dos
  • Equivalent dose
  • Effective dose
  • Group doses
  • Dos rate

Exposure Dose

The effect of ionizing radiation and the medium of the ionization effect. It was most often necessary to deal with radiation propagation in the air. Therefore, it has been possible to use the X-ray tubes or devices was used. It is easy to measure. exposure dose.

In the case of energy of There are no signs of any difference in this case.

This is the number of kilogram (C / kg). Non-systemic unit – X-ray (R). 1 C / kg = 3880 Р

Absorbed dos

It has been noted that it can be taken for a period of time. It is important that these substances give you an effect on the substance. As a result, the concept absorbed dose. The amount of energy absorbed by the substance is absorbed.

It was measured in joules divided by kilogram (J / kg) and Gray (Gr). 1 Gy – this is the dose 1 kg energy of ionizing radiation is transmitted 1 j. The non-unit absorbed dose unit is rad. 1 Gy = 100 happy.

The effect of radiation has been absorbed.

Equivalent dose

Equivalent dose (E, HT, R) reflects the biological effect of radiation. It has been shown that it has been absorbed by the body. This is a result of the fact that it gives you the ability to make it. The radiation absorbed by the radiation. The concept is introduced. equivalent dose. The amount of the relative biological efficiency has been calculated.Obe) orWr), reflecting its ability to damage body tissues.

It has been shown that it has been shown that it has been calculated that it can be used for all types of radiation.

The unit of equivalent dose in SI is sievert (Sv) and is measured in joules divided by kilogram (J / kg). Magnitude 1Sv the amount of radiation absorbed in 1 kg absorbed dose in this case 1 Gy photon radiation. It is the Baer (before 1963, the biological equivalent of X-rays, the biological equivalent of X-rays). 1 Sv = 100 rem.

Quality factor – in radiobiology, biological efficiency (RBE). It characterizes the type of radiation (compared with? -Radiation). This radiation. (The term should not be understood as the “quality factor of harm”).

It has been shown that it has been shown that it has been reduced to a minimum of 10%. For the quality factor there is GOST 8.496-83. Risk of radiation exposure to radiation. The standard is not used for exposures and during radiotherapy.

This is the ratio of the absorbed energy of the radiation dose.

Quality factors for types of radiation:
Photons (? -Radiation and X-rays), by definition one
?-radiation (electrons, positrons) one
Muons one
?-radiation with energy less than 10 MeV 20
Neutrons (thermal, slow, resonant), up to 10 keV five
Neutrons from 10 keV to 100 keV ten
Neutrons from 100 keV to 2 MeV 20
Neutrons from 2 MeV to 20 MeV ten
Neutrons over 2 MeV five
Protons, 2 … 5 MeV five
Protons, 5 … 10 MeV ten
Heavy recoil nuclei 20

Effective dose

Effective dose, (E, Investigation of the effect of the body.

Different parts of the body are different than the thyroid gland. It is calculated as the sum.

Of the organs of the minds:
Gonads (gonads) 0.2
Red bone marrow 0.12
Colon 0.12
Stomach 0.12
Lungs 0.12
Bladder 0.05
Liver 0.05
Esophagus 0.05
Thyroid 0.05
Leather 0.01
Bone surface cells 0.01
Brain 0.025
Remaining tissue 0.05

The sum of the whole organism is one. Units of equivalent dose. It is also measured in Sievert or Berah.

Fixed effective equivalent dose (CEDE – The amount of the radioactive substance. CEDE is expressed in reels or sieverts (Svit takes it up to the whole life. Depending on the situation, it is possible to

Effective and equivalent dose – These are the normalized values, i.e., and their descendants. Unfortunately, they cannot be directly measured. Therefore, it has been determined that it can be reconstructed in normal conditions. The main operating value is the ambient dose equivalent (synonyms – ambient dose equivalent, ambient dose equivalent).

Ambient equivalent dose of H * (d) – equivalent dose, which was created in the ball phantom MCRE (International Commission on Radiation Units), it has been consistently defined as the international pattern on radiation depth, in (i.e.). The ambient equivalent of the dose is taken. Unit ambient dose equivalent – Sievert (Sv).

Group doses

It was possible to arrive at a period of time. The population of a particular village, city, administrative unit, state, etc. It is obtained by the number of people who were under the influence of radiation. Doseman-sign), non-system unit – person-rem (man rem).

In addition, there are the following doses:

  • Commitment – The expected dose, half a century dose. It is used in radionuclides when calculating absorbed, radionuclides; The corresponding dose.
  • collective – calculated value; unit – Sievert (Sv). The number of people at a dose intervals. A collective dose can be accumulated for a long time, not even a single generation, but for the subsequent generation.
  • threshold – dose, below which are noted.
  • maximum permissible dose (SDA) – It has been noted that it has been possible to note that it has been taken for a period of 50 minutes.
  • preventable – It can be prevented by protective measures.
  • doubling – dose, which increases by 2 times (or 100%) the level of spontaneous mutations. The doubling dose is inversely proportional to the relative mutational risk. According to currently available data, 4 Sv.
  • biological dose of gamma neutron radiation – The dose of gamma irradiation is taken as a standard. Equalized to the quality factor.
  • minimally lethal – It caused the death of all irradiated objects.

Dos rate

Dos rate This is the radiation intensity of the radiation intensity. It is divided by the unit of time. Various special units are allowed (for example, mcR / hour, Sv / hour, rem / min, cSv / year and etc.).

See also:

  • Part 1. Radioactivity and radiation background.
  • Part 2. Means and methods of measurement.

Radiation. Part 3: Doses of radiation and exposure to ionizing radiation

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