Movement along the route, overcoming difficult natural obstacles, especially on long hikes and on hot days, is accompanied by significant sweating. This leads to large losses by the body of water of mineral elements. Therefore, a rational drinking regime in a hiking trip is the most important condition for ensuring the endurance of its participants.
Drinking regime during the trip, observing the water-salt regime, drinking regime when committing a ski trip in an alpine zone or ski trip.
The main replenishment of the body with water usually occurs on a bivouac. And more in the evening, when the load on the heart is the smallest. In the process of movement, in no case should you completely refrain from drinking water. It is only necessary to observe a reasonable dosage and drinking regimen.
During a day’s transition, the body’s water reserves should be replenished at large intervals organized every 2.5-3 hours of movement. Here, depending on the weather, load, pace of movement, the nature of the route, it is recommended to drink 150-250 g of liquid. At small rests (after 40-50 minutes of movement) should not be drunk. It is enough to rinse your mouth and throat with acidified water. Eat some dried apricots or prunes, sour or mint sweets.
You need to know that with significant fatigue, the secretion of the salivary glands is sharply inhibited. Therefore, due to the dryness of the oral mucosa, a feeling of false thirst arises. To eliminate it, salivation should be increased. Exciting glands with products containing various organic acids (malic, citric, cranberry, etc.).
Good thirst-quenching drinks are green tea, ayran (skimmed, sour, diluted milk) or chal (a product of the fermentation of camel milk). If the route passes by mineral springs, it is good to use mineral water to quench your thirst.
Compliance with the water-salt regime in the campaign.
Water from mountain rivers, as well as from snow or ice, contains almost no mineral salts. Therefore, to preserve the water-salt regime, this water is mineralized by adding glycerophosphate to it. A special salt preparation containing sodium, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium salts. On a liter flask, add 2-3 teaspoons of this drug. If there is no glycerophosphate, salt water should be salted (0.5 g of salt per 1 liter of water).
Those who sweat a lot and experience constant thirst need to eat 5-10 g of salt before breakfast and drink it with water until the thirst is completely quenched. It should be remembered that an excessive amount of salt helps to retain significant amounts of water in the body, which greatly loads the heart and kidneys with additional work.
Drinking regimen during a ski trip in a high mountain area or ski trip.
Of particular difficulty is the replenishment of water loss by the body when making a ski trip in a high mountain zone or a ski trip. Here, water is usually obtained only from snow, and only on bivouac.
Since hot food, and with it water, in this case is taken twice a day — in the morning at 7–9 hours and in the evening at 19–21 hours, the break in fluid intake is 12 hours. Of this time, 8-11 hours are associated with hard work on the route. That is, with profuse sweating. It is during this period that the body receives water in limited and clearly insufficient quantities..
Therefore, it is necessary to observe the drinking regime, although this is due to an increase in the already large mass of the backpack, to have thermoses per group at the rate of 0.75-1 liters of liquid per person. In this case, it is necessary to make an appropriate recalculation of fuel. So that its strictly limited amount does not become an obstacle in obtaining the required amount of water.
In a summer trip in the highlands, tourists can get water as follows. On a sunny day, on a large stone heated by the sun, having a southern exposure and a pronounced hollow on the surface, it is necessary to lay 15-20 handfuls of snow at a distance of about 10 cm from one another. Place the dishes at the mouth of the hollow. In a few minutes you can draw up to 1 liter of water from one large stone.
In any trip, observing the drinking regime and replenishing water losses, tourists should remember that the feeling of quenching thirst occurs 10-15 minutes after taking the liquid. That’s why you don’t have to rush to drink a lot of water right away.
You can not use water from rivers and streams directly below villages and pastures, as well as from contaminated wells. It may contain pathogens. In raw form, you can drink water only from a spring, in other cases it is necessary to boil.
To disinfect water, if it is not possible to boil it, you should use disinfectant tablets, usually containing chlorine. The most common pills are Pantocid. One tablet is designed for 0.5-0.75 liters of water. Water is disinfected for 15 minutes.
Contaminated water, especially swamp water, can be treated with several crystals of potassium permanganate before boiling. At the same time, the water brightens somewhat, and red flakes settle to the bottom. You can also filter the water by tearing a shallow hole in the low bank of the reservoir (preferably in sand) so that water is absorbed into it. The first few servings of water must be scooped up, after which it will be cleaner.
Based on materials from the book Homemade Travel Equipment.