Emergencies of anthropogenic origin are all that we have become accustomed to, accidents and disasters at industrial and transport facilities.
Emergencies and accidents of technological origin, classification, causes and features.
In civil defense, they are divided into four groups.
and violation of the tightness of technological equipment. As well as during transportation and storage of hazardous chemicals.
The most insidious. Because, unlike the chemical ones, which we can smell with our nose or taste, radiation ones do not manifest themselves. Only on the scale or screen of the radiometer. And yet these accidents are the most extensive in terms of area of defeat. What gave sad confirmation of the Chernobyl and South Ural nuclear disasters. And the longest-running accidents. They hit vast territories and make them dangerous for living for many years..
It is estimated that if a nuclear reactor with an energy capacity of 1000 MW is destroyed, the area of the territories affected by 100 rad a year will be 50 square meters. km, 50 rad per year 100 square meters. km and with the maximum permissible 2 rad per year 2300 square meters. km After five years, the area of affected areas will decrease slightly more than half, but even after a hundred years will leave 2, 5 and 50 sq. M. km adjacent to the accident site. If we take it very roughly, then the area of affected lands is halved in five years, then in ten years and then by one five percent annually.
Radiation disasters and accidents.
Possible at nuclear power plants, military facilities, research reactors. Local lesions occur in places where radioactive materials are used for technical and scientific purposes..
Explosions and related fires.
Usually happen at enterprises where combustible gases (methane, ethane, propane) are used as fuel or components of technological processes. At gas storages. In military and civilian subordination warehouses where explosives and ammunition are stored. At chemical and oil refineries. On gas pipelines. At a certain concentration in confined spaces, peaceful substances such as flour, grain and wood dust, powdered sugar can explode. They can explode very powerfully. I myself saw the remains of a three-story building, to the base destroyed by the explosion with only flour dust.
In addition, railway and automobile tanks with gasoline, household gas, explosives transported by rail or by road may explode. And everything can burn. Even iron, if properly heated. Fires in settlements and enterprises are divided into.
SEPARATE when only one building or structure is affected by fire.
MASS when fires cover more than 25% of buildings.
FIRE STORM when burning more than 90% of city buildings.
Fire is one of the few natural disasters that a single person can cause, and thousands of people can suffer from it..
They occur during the destruction of various hydraulic structures of river dams, sea and river dams, etc. The breakthrough of the dam can be triggered by geological or meteorological natural disasters, caused by excessive water pressure due to catastrophic floods, decaying structures, as a result of malicious intent. When a dam breaks through, a destructive wave can form, dangerous for residents of settlements located downstream. Its magnitude and propagation velocity depend on the volume of water held back by the dam, the height of its level above the terrain and the rate of dam destruction.
The wave speed can reach 25 km / h in the plains, and 100 km / h in the mountains! The strength of the impact largely depends on the topography of the place. On the plain, where the water has the opportunity to spread around, the impact of the wave is less significant and quickly weakens. In mountainous areas, in gorges, where water has nowhere to go, and especially with strong elevations that facilitate acceleration, the shock force of the wave can reach catastrophic proportions and does not weaken before it reaches the operational space. In addition, water that has broken through a dam can, dragging stones along with it and washing the banks, turn into a flood.
Based on materials from the School of Survival in Accidents and Natural Disasters.