It’s easier to carry a light backpack, of course, but you’ll freeze at night. This well-known saying by servicemen making marching throws with shrucksacks weighing more than 60 kilograms on their backs in the Arctic conditions of the North is fully true for tourists traveling in the winter and adventure seekers in the Arctic.
Equipment and necessary supplies for arctic conditions, movement and overnight, minimum wearable emergency reserve.
If in the daytime you can maintain normal body temperature due to the fact that you move on rough terrain with slopes of about 20 degrees. That night, when the temperature drops much below zero, and you are at rest, it becomes much harder to keep warm. Therefore, it is better to be safe than sorry.
Put all the necessary things in low wide sankas with a closed bottom. You will consume less energy, dragging this load along the snow and ice, and not carrying it on yourself, which is very important. The most efficient use of energy will help you to prevent the onset of hypothermia longer..
The Arctic is ruthless. By the negative impact on humans, the Arctic natural conditions can only be compared with the scorching desert. You can hardly find yourself in the Arctic zones by accident. So the importance of properly preparing for large temperature extremes and meeting the needs for food and fuel in these difficult Arctic conditions can hardly be overestimated.
Of course, you need to find out everything in advance. Temperature range, risk of descendant, other weather conditions. This will help to choose and pack the equipment and plot the route on the map. The number of navigation devices should include a compass and a GPS device, as well as take paper topographic maps. If something goes wrong, there must be a replacement.
Sunglasses are a must. Dazzling sunlight reflected from the snow makes orientation very difficult. Such conditions are difficult for vision, and photokeratitis may occur. Painful eye burn, also known as sun blindness.
Specialized retailers selling equipment for tourists and travelers offer a variety of items that will enhance your comfort in low temperatures. However, choosing what to bring with you, you need to consider the weight of these things. After all, during the campaign you will have to carry them on yourself or drag.
Arctic traffic, snowshoes and a snow anchor.
If the conditions are such that it becomes impossible to ski, the trouble-free snow anchor and a pair of snowshoes will come to the rescue. In snowdrifts made of fresh snow and snow, in the form of a plate structure attached to shoes, you can distribute body weight over a wider area. This reduces the risk of falling into the snow. If the snow cover reaches your belt, you will spend hundreds of precious calories to overcome just a few meters.
If conditions become even more risky, use a snow anchor to help you brake if you slide down a steep incline. A very useful tool for this. Of course, they should learn to use it before you even go on a trip..
Arctic tool, snow saw and shovel.
For the jungle, it was indispensable for kukri, and in arctic conditions, the same valuable tools that can be used for a variety of purposes are the ilopat snow saw. With their help, you will be able to catch yourself something for lunch, build a shelter or overcome an unexpected obstacle.
Overnight in arctic conditions, necessary equipment.
In addition to an insulated tent for cold weather and a sleeping bag with good insulation for sleeping at low temperatures, you will need a sleeping bag tent with an outer layer of thin but dense fabric. To sleep peacefully all night and avoid any serious consequences, you need to maximize the heat generated by the body. To do this, it is necessary to pack and insulate as best as possible.
A thick tourist rug will help you protect yourself from the cold earth, which, like a sponge, absorbs the precious heat radiated by you. The same problem can be solved with a fire or rescue blanket, folded in several layers. It will also provide the necessary insulation if you need to warm up quickly..
To increase the temperature inside the tent or snow shelter by several degrees, you can use a few candles, but so that there is no risk of fire. Before falling asleep, they must be put out.
Minimum wearable emergency reserve for arctic conditions.
Arctic food supplies.
Food reserves should be sufficient. At low temperatures, the body burns almost twice as much fuel as under normal conditions. Therefore, arctic conditions require high-fat foods. In addition to pre-packaged dehydrated foods and energy bars, you should bring peanut butter, lard, nuts, and chocolate with you.
When your metabolic system is more active than usual in order to convert food into heat necessary for maintaining life, talking about extra calories is not necessary. It is necessary to take into account the fact that additional energy is required for towing a heavy sled and for potentially long transitions. In the process of which you may experience severe hunger and quickly lose weight if your calories are not enough.
The best option for health is to consume 5000 and more calories per day. And to this, an additional “emergency food reserve” is still needed. You must have a device for filtering water with you. Although in emergency situations, you can use snow and ice with minimal risk. It is recommended to filter the water, especially if it is taken from rivers or lakes..
Clothing for arctic conditions.
Your main protection against the cold is a multi-layer clothing system. It does not allow wind and frost to reach the body and accumulates the heat released by it. But even fairly thick and porous fleece layers and linings will not solve this problem if the clothes are not fastened properly. That is, it does not provide the necessary isolation. In these conditions, the outer layer of clothing becomes very important, the characteristics of which should be the best.
Choose material for cold weather like gortex. It does not allow heat to go outside, but it breathes a little. Unlike materials with zero porosity, such breathability contributes to the drying of sweat..
In a cold climate, maintaining not only heat but also dry skin is of great importance. Since in Arctic conditions, moisture on the skin quickly freezes. For example, wet socks can quickly lead to tissue death. Because vasoconstriction (narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels) interferes with the flow of blood to the legs. It is necessary to take into account the fact that wet legs lose 25 times more heat than dry.
Even in warm, but humid climates, cotton socks can be detrimental. And even more so, wet wool socks will not protect against the appearance of a trench foot.
Based on the book Survival in the Wild and Extreme Situations. 100 key skills in the special services methodology.