Esophageal and gastrointestinal bleeding, causes, symptoms, first aid.

Esophageal bleeding is manifested by spontaneous ejection of scarlet blood from the mouth. With its small volume, it is accompanied by belching, and the release of a large volume of blood is vomiting. Esophageal bleeding begins at night or after a heavy meal, as the flow of blood to the organs of the digestive tract increases. Esophageal bleeding often occurs abruptly and unexpectedly. 

Esophageal bleeding, causes, symptoms, first aid.

Causes of bleeding can be various diseases of the esophagus: peptic ulcers, decaying tumors, inflammation of the mucous membrane, one or more diverticula (protrusion of the wall of the gastrointestinal tract), trauma. Bleeding often occurs with esophageal gastric hernias in the area of ​​the esophageal opening of the diaphragm, with a breakthrough of the aortic aneurysm into the esophagus, as well as with varicose veins of the esophagus with portal hypertension. This violation can occur with longitudinal tears of the esophagus mucosa, which appear with severe non-stop vomiting.

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First aid for esophageal bleeding.

The victim should be laid on his side so that his legs are bent at the knees, put a cold compress or ice bladder on the epigastric region of the abdomen, provide peace and not give drink and eat. As a first aid intravenously, a 10% solution of calcium chloride is required, vicasol – 1% solution of 1-2 ml intramuscularly, aminocaproic acid – 5% solution of 100 ml intravenously. The patient must be urgently taken to the surgical department of the hospital.

Gastrointestinal bleeding, causes, symptoms, first aid.

Gastrointestinal bleeding is acute or chronic bleeding from the stomach or various parts of the intestine. Gastrointestinal bleeding may occur due to ulcerative disease of the stomach and duodenum. With erosive gastritis, chronic inflammation of the colon, varicose veins of the stomach and esophagus. In the case of benign tumors on the intestinal mucosa, with hemorrhoids, various types of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.

Symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding.

There are common signs of blood loss, such as lethargy, weakness, dizziness, cold sweat, palpitations, loss of consciousness, scarlet vomiting, dark vomit (gastric juice changes the color of the blood). The dark green or black color of feces, progressive anemia is a sign of latent gastrointestinal bleeding. Feces with dark blood are a sign of bleeding from the small intestine. Fecal mass with red blood – bleeding from the rectum.

First aid for gastrointestinal bleeding.

First of all, it is necessary to call the ambulance team to hospitalize the patient, then create the conditions for reducing the intensity of blood loss until it stops. The patient must be given a horizontal position with raised legs and a bowed head, he needs rest. The use of cold on the abdomen in the area of ​​the zone of the alleged source of bleeding reduces blood loss, for this purpose, pieces of ice can be swallowed..

Based on the book “Quick help in emergency situations”.
Kashin S.P..

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