The carcass of large ungulates (elk, reindeer, roe deer) is cut into pieces during processing, which vary greatly in quality. Varietal division and names of carcass parts are the same as those adopted when cutting beef. Meat, which can be used for roasting, averages 10% by weight of the whole carcass.
Features of cutting and culinary processing of meat of large and medium ungulates, wild pigs, brown bears, hare, wild poultry and offal.
The fillet is considered the most tender, or fillet tenderloin – a deep lumbar muscle that almost does not work. It contains the least connective tissue. Then follows the dorsal part. Roast (roast beef) and grilled pieces of meat (beef steak) can be prepared only from these parts. Parts of the hind leg with rounded thick muscles can be prepared relatively quickly if they are extinguished by frying after roasting. They are suitable for cooking stews and chops..
The lateral parts of the hind leg with oblong muscle bundles, the scapula and brisket contain more connective tissue, so it’s better to cook them and stew for a long time in an acidic liquid. After processing, a good stuffing is also obtained from these parts of the carcass. Flank and neck are used for forcemeat, as with long cooking this meat becomes tasteless.
The scheme of cutting and processing carcasses for roasting, stewing and cooking.
The meat of these moving animals, not spoiled by food, is almost devoid of fat. Under favorable conditions, fat is deposited under the skin and on the internal organs. Therefore, meat is almost always stuffed with strips of lard or subcutaneous fat, and marinated to soften. Then they use it as beef, using bacon and speck. Fat must be added to cutlets (lard, butter – 100 g per 1 kg), 25% stale white bread, 25-30% liquid (milk, broth, water).
Features of cutting and culinary processing of meat of medium ungulates (saiga, mountain sheep and goats).
The best parts are the dorsal part and the hind leg (ham). It is advisable to stew and cook the shoulder and brisket. From the brisket and scapula without bones, roll is prepared with or without filling, frying it like roast. The neck, head and legs are used to make soups and jellies. The meat of these animals is closer to lamb and has a specific, characteristic taste that not everyone likes.
Scheme of varietal cutting of carcasses of medium ungulates.
Therefore, the dishes must be seasoned. Often using several types of seasonings for dressing: onions, garlic, marjoram, ginger, caraway seeds and spicy sauces. This meat is often marinated, which gives it a pleasant taste and shortens cooking time. Fat quickly hardens, so the dishes are served hot, and serving dishes are also heated. Side dishes are sharp. You can use recipes for lamb.
Features of cutting and culinary processing of meat of wild pigs.
The meat of wild pigs during cooking has several features. First of all, it should be remembered that the meat of males, especially the old ones (cleaver), more severely and during the rutting season has a specific unpleasant odor. It can be significantly reduced if, right after the boar is shot, before cutting, a flap of skin around the penis, about two palms wide, is removed from the abdomen, it and the testes are removed.
To more completely remove the smell, meat cut into portions, for example chopped chops, should be soaked in diluted 1-2% vinegar for 2-4 hours (depending on the size of the piece). The meat of females and young male gilts (not during the rut) does not require such processing if it is not intended for the preparation of barbecue. When the boar carcass is left in the skin, the bristles are removed by scalding, pulling, cleaning and singeing with a thorough wash.
If the boar is a carcass of the first category of fatness (the thickness of subcutaneous fat is more than 2 cm), then such fat is cut off to prepare salted fat and other purposes. From the carcasses of wild boars of the second category of fatness with subcutaneous fat less than 2 cm, the fat is not removed. Half-carcasses of boars are divided across into three parts: the back, or debarking, middle and front.
Hams are the most valuable parts. They are allocated for salting, smoking and for subsequent baking or cooking (boiled ham). The middle part is divided into three parts by two longitudinal sections: the upper part is the loin, the middle part is the brisket and the lower value is the nipple part. The loin and brisket can be used for the preparation of salted-smoked products. A loin, in addition, can be used to make chop.
With excess spinal fat, it is cut off, leaving a layer of 1 cm. Then the meat part is separated from the spine and the latter is chopped off, leaving ribs in the meat. Then this piece is divided with a knife into portions. Leaving in each one rib with a bare tip. The resulting portions are beaten to soften and flatten. Then lightly salted and fried – these are natural chops. You can moisten them previously in a beaten egg and bread in breadcrumbs.
The pulp of the dorsal part and the back ham is used on schnitzels, which are prepared in the same way as chops in breadcrumbs. The scapular part of the carcass is best used for cooking a piece of stew. Pork legs – perfect jelly product.
Features of cutting and culinary processing of brown bear meat.
The meat of brown bears, obtained before lying in dens, especially in the dipper, is well-fed and has high palatability. On the contrary, the meat of bears shot at the end of hibernation or after leaving it, as well as in male rods that did not go into hibernation, is unattractive.
The most valuable parts in the carcass of a bear are the back and front hams and the lumbar-dorsal part. If the bear is oily, then the fat is cut off with slices during processing and is salted in a dry manner. After cutting the carcass, the internal fat is soaked in running or frequently replaced water until it becomes clear. Then finely chopped fat is heated in a water bath, filtered, cooled and poured into sterilized dry dark glass or clay jars..
Store lard in a dark, cool, dry place. Bear fat is fusible, does not bitter for a long time and is considered healing. Hams and shoulder blades, if desired, are salted and smoked. If the bear’s meat cannot be frozen, it is stored in a salty form. Using a curing mixture of the following composition: 3 kg of medium-ground salt, 2 kg of granulated sugar, 200 g of food saltpeter and 100 g of crushed black pepper are taken per 100 kg of meat.
The mixture is well mixed, rubbed with it pieces of meat from all sides and tightly stack them in a clean steamed tub. Maintain meat at room temperature for up to 5 days. Then they transfer it to another clean tub. Cover with gauze and transfer to a cool place. If after a few days the resulting brine does not cover the meat, the brine is poured into the tub, which is prepared from the same curing mixture, diluting it with water. The meat is salted for 30 days, after which it can be stored in brine until cooked.
To make smoked-boiled ham, the meat is taken out of the brine, allowed to drain for an hour or the meat is dried with dry bran. After chegokoptyat at a temperature not exceeding 40 degrees. With a mass of ham of 6-7 kg – about 48 hours. If the ham is not smoked, it should be soaked for about an hour and a half and cook until tender. A ham weighing 5 kg is boiled for about 4 hours, weighing 10 kg – up to 8 hours.
Features of cutting and culinary processing of meat of a hare and other small animals.
Zaychatina is dark in color, tough and poor in fat, has a spicy strong taste. During its processing, it is necessary to remove all shells and films, of which there are especially many in the hare. Young hare can be used immediately. Pickle it in a weak marinade just for taste. Old hare is pickled for three days. It should be borne in mind that the back becomes soft earlier than the legs.
The hare and the rabbit are cooked as a whole, and chopped into pieces. They are cut across into four parts or together with bones into portioned pieces. For some dishes only, the flesh is separated from the bones. Low-fat rabbits and hares are sheared or wrapped in thin slices of lard and tied. The main methods of heat treatment are roasting, baking and stewing, older animals are boiled.
Garnish for rabbit meat can be soft-tasted stewed and boiled vegetables, green salad, tomato and cucumber salad and fruit compotes. Zachyatina is served with spicy sauces, braised red cabbage or beets, spicy salads in a marinade. Other small animals can be prepared in the same way..
Features of cutting and culinary processing of wild poultry meat.
The bird, as a rule, goes on sale and is brought from the hunt in an unpeeled form. During processing, plucking should begin from the neck. In this case, the skin must be pulled and the feathers pulled out in the direction opposite to their growth. It will be easier to pinch the bird if you first lower the carcass into hot (70-80 degrees) water for several minutes. It is easier to remove feathers also in birds, which were kept 3-5 days suspended in the cold.
So that the bird can be gutted, an incision is made from the anus to the chest, from which all the insides are removed with the fingers. In this case, care must be taken not to damage the gallbladder. The gutted bird is thoroughly washed inside.
Legs trump slightly below the knee joint. The head is cut off. The skin on the neck is cut from the back and the neck is chopped off so that the skin remains on the carcass. Then the skin is tucked under the back, covering the neck cut. Game is shaped the same way as poultry. Feathered game meat is very rich in connective tissue and poorly cooked.
Therefore, it is recommended that the game be pre-held for several days uncleaned in the cold or, after cleaning, marinate in an acidic liquid. The meat of the old bird should be pickled longer than the meat of the young bird. The meat of the old bird is darker and harder, and the bones are stronger.
Features of cutting and cooking offal.
Offal (liver, heart, kidneys, brains, lungs, head, legs, tails, etc.) game, like pets, are rich in minerals, contain complete proteins and vitamins A, B1 and B2. You should not neglect them. By-products in most cases are rich in water, so they quickly deteriorate and should be eaten immediately. The liver, blood, tongue, brain, kidneys are the most valuable of them..
General rule: in offal more often than in meat, various parasites and traces of some diseases are found. Therefore, they should be carefully considered. Everything causing distrust is mercilessly destroyed, and the products themselves must always be subjected to lengthy heat treatment.
Before the preparation of the liver, the film covering it is removed. To do this, you need to slightly beat off the liver with the knife handle, then the film leaves and it is easy to remove it. Large blood vessels are also excised. Young liver is the most delicious and healthy. You can soften the liver and remove the bitter taste by soaking in milk for several hours.
Brains have a delicate and pleasant taste. The most delicious calf brains. Since they contain a lot of blood, they are soaked in cold water, washed thoroughly, the films are removed and boiled or fried. If the brains are too tender and soft, then a little vinegar is added to the water in which they are soaked or boiled – acid makes the brain tissue denser.
Language is a delicacy juicy and tender. It is advisable to salt it 3-4 days before cooking. For salting, 1 g of tongue takes 150 g of salt, 1 tablespoon of sugar and 1/4 teaspoon of saltpeter (to preserve color). Saline tongue can be stored for several days.
Kidneys of young animals can be immediately prepared for food; they are suitable for roasting on skewers and in electric grills. The kidneys of adult animals require careful processing. Cut in half, remove blood vessels, soak in cold water, boil (pour water), rinse again in cold water and only then use for food.
The heart has a dense connective tissue and is therefore better suited for cooking and stewing. The nutritional value of the lungs and stomach is less, they are boiled, stewed in sauce, used for fillings. The guts, after careful processing, are also used for fillings or for making home-made sausages..
Features of cutting and culinary processing of offal of birds.
Offal birds consume the liver, heart, and stomach. The most valuable is the liver, from which you can cook unusual pastes and various fillings. The heart and stomach can be stewed in sauce or with vegetables (stews). You can also pass them through a meat grinder and, together with the liver, prepare a filling for pies or casserole.
The liver should carefully remove bile, which gives it a bitter taste, and film. Semi-finished liver thoroughly check and remove all greenish traces of the gallbladder. Stomachs (navels) cut in half, twist, remove leftover food, rinse and remove the film from the inside. Remove the surrounding film from the heart during processing.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Petrunin V.B., Nikashina E.B., Kupriyanov F.G., Nikerov Yu.N., Rymalov I.V..