Refueling is called soups, which include sautéed vegetables (turnips, carrots, parsley and celery roots, onions), many of the soups are seasoned with flour. Refueling soups include traditional Russian dishes: cabbage soup, borscht, pickles, hodgepodge, chowder and others. For the preparation of filling soups, broths are used (meat, bone, meat and bone, chicken, fish, mushroom), less often, vegetable and cereal broths.
Features of the preparation of filling soups, the timing and sequence of cooking products in the preparation of filling soups.
Bones on average contain 15–20% fat, about 11% protein, and 23% mineral salts. In order for more nutrients to enter the broth, it is advisable to crush the bones as finely as possible and cook at low boiling for at least 6–7 hours. All soups are prepared on meat broth. On the fish – cabbage sauerkraut, pickle, hodgepodge, potato soup and potato soup with cereal.
it is impossible to lay it raw because during cooking, aromatic and flavoring substances easily evaporate from them with water vapor. To hold them, chopped roots and onions are placed on a frying pan preheated with a small amount of fat, mix well and fry slightly until a light film is formed, but not allowing them to appear dark.
Aromatic substances released from the roots and onions are absorbed by fat, from which they are released slowly and gradually. Due to this, the soup after introducing into it the roots and onions, fried in this way, acquires their inherent aroma and retains it for a long time. Carrots also stain fat in orange. The color of the fat turns out to be brighter if it is warmed up with tomato puree. Spangles of colored fat on the surface of the soup give it an attractive look. The finer and finer the vegetables are sliced, especially the carrots, the easier it is for flavoring and coloring substances to be extracted from them with fat. For some soups (pea), onions are sautéed separately from other vegetables, so that its color hardly changes.
Vegetables passer in a frying pan, in a saucepan or saucepan. Put onion in the melted fat and, having a little sautéed, add carrots and other vegetables. The layer of vegetables should not exceed 30 mm, otherwise they turn out steamed. With the simultaneous passage of onions, carrots, parsley, celery and tomato puree, you must first passer the onion (2-5 minutes), then carrots, parsley, celery (8-10 minutes). Add the tomato puree before the end of the sautéing of vegetables and then continue the sautéing for another 10-15 minutes. Do not put tomato puree in raw vegetables, as they will not acquire the taste and aroma of sautéed vegetables. In addition, raw vegetables are made stiff from acid and need to be stewed longer. When processing a large number of vegetables, onions and tomato puree are sautéed separately from root crops.
Features of the preparation of meat, fish and mushroom dressing soups.
For meat dressing soups, vegetables and flour can be fried in refined fat, taken during cooking of the broth, or in ghee and kitchen fats. Cleaning fat is as follows. The pan with the fat removed from the broth is placed on the stove and boiled until the water is completely evaporated and the fat is completely transparent. Then the refined fat is slightly cooled and used. For fish soups, mushroom broth and water (vegetarian), vegetables and flour are fried in butter (cream, ghee, sunflower) or kitchen fats. To improve the taste and aroma, a little pepper, bay leaf are put in the soup, and flour dressing in some soups.
Flour dressing is prepared as follows: put oil in a pan (a spoonful of flour – a spoonful of oil), pour in the sifted flour, stir and fry it for 5-10 minutes, continuously stirring with a spoon and not allowing to brown. When roasting flour, moisture evaporates from it, and with it substances that impart a specific smell and taste to raw flour. Then stir the toasted flour with broth and pour into the soup (10-15 minutes before the end of cooking). In some cases, for example, when cooking green cabbage soup, flour can be fried along with the roots. Stew beets for borsch in order to preserve its color. If the beets are laid raw, then with prolonged cooking in a large amount of broth or water, its color changes. When stewing, the beets are brought almost to readiness with a small amount of water, which protects it from discoloration. The addition of vinegar also contributes to this..
Instead of stewing, whole unpeeled but well-washed beet roots can be baked or boiled in a small amount of water, and then peeled, chopped and put in borsch. Pre-stewing sauerkraut for cabbage soup improves its taste. Cereals (except buckwheat and semolina), peas and beans before laying in the broth are sorted and washed thoroughly. For faster cooking, pearl barley and legumes (peas, beans, lentils) should be soaked: pearl barley for 2-3 hours, legumes for 4-6 hours. Peeled (half) peas should not be soaked.
Soup with pearl barley sometimes gets an unpleasant bluish tint. To avoid this, pearl barley is recommended not to be laid raw, but previously boiled separately separately until ready. To better preserve vitamin C in vegetables, they should be placed in a boiling broth (water) and boiled at a low boil. Immersion of vegetables in a cold liquid and gradual heating entails a strong destruction of vitamin C. For the same reason, digestion of vegetables should not be allowed..
The timing and sequence of cooking products in the preparation of filling soups.
In order for the soup to turn out delicious and retain a maximum of vitamins, it is necessary to carefully observe the cooking time of the products, and therefore, a certain sequence in which they are lowered into the pan. So, for example, when cooking borsch on meat and bone broth, the products are processed and laid in the following order: bones, meat, beets, fresh cabbage, potatoes. Fried onions, roots, tomato puree, bay leaves, allspice peas are put 15-20 minutes before the end of cooking the soup. When cooking soups, which include potatoes, sauerkraut, pickles, vinegar, sorrel or tomato, they first lower the potatoes (10 minutes earlier), because otherwise the potatoes will boil badly and get an unpleasant aftertaste.
Prepared foods are lowered into the pan when the water boils, then, after stirring, bring the contents of the pan to a boil over high heat, after which the fire is reduced to the limit. Boiling boils badly affects the quality of the soup. Spices and salt are usually put in the soup shortly before cooking. Parsley and celery will not change color and decorate the dish if they are put in the soup before removing it from the heat. For soups, vegetables are cut so that the shape of the slices of individual types of vegetables matches the shape of other parts of the side dish. For example, in cereal soups, vegetables are cut into small cubes, and in soups with noodles – straws. When the cabbage is cut in the form of squares, the remaining vegetables should be cut in the form of slices or slices; if the cabbage is chopped, then the remaining vegetables should be cut into strips. It should be remembered that finely chopped vegetables are cooked faster than large.
Features of the preparation of various filling soups.
It is recommended to add cream, sour cream or yogurt to vegetable soups to improve their taste and nutritional value. Sour cream can be put directly in a bowl of soup or served separately. Sprinkle the prepared soups with finely chopped fresh parsley, dill and green onions. This improves the taste, appearance of soups and enriches them with vitamin C. Vegetable soups are prepared shortly before their use, because when stored in them, vitamin C is quickly destroyed. So, after three hours of storing cabbage or potato soup, only half of them remain in them. the amount of vitamin C that was at the end of cooking.
For the same reason, do not cook soup for two days. It is advisable to cook only the broth for two days, on which fresh soup is then cooked daily. In addition to preserving the vitamin value of soups, this provides the best palatability of dishes and a variety of nutrition. If the broth is cooked for two days, half of it should be poured into a separate bowl (faience or enameled), covered with gauze and put in a cool place on a wooden or metal stand. When steam ceases to stand out from the broth, remove the cheesecloth and cover the dishes.
It is advisable to use canned meat and fish when preparing soups instead of fresh meat and fish in those cases when the soup needs to be cooked quickly or when fresh meat and fish are difficult to preserve. The soup is boiled in water until tender, and then they put canned food and let the soup boil. Refueling soups are served with black and white bread or various pies made from yeast, yeast puff and fresh puff pastry with meat, cabbage or rice. To borsch and cabbage soup from fresh cabbage, in addition, you can serve cheesecakes with cottage cheese. To cabbage sauerkraut – loose buckwheat porridge or croutons from viscous buckwheat porridge.
Based on the book Thousand Soup Recipes.
Roshal V. M.