Feeding in the forest: Common Oak

Feeding in the forest: Common Oak

Table of contents:

Sylvanas – forest dwellers

Oak forests – oak, oak and oak trees
Common oak and its consortium
Description of the identification signs of oak
Habitat and habitat
Environmental features

Edible parts and recipes

  • Acorns
  • Acorn bread
  • Acorn crumbly porridge
  • Oak buds
  • Male inflorescences earrings
  • Young leaves
  • Gauls

Other benefits for autonomous survival

Other types of oaks and their features

  • Rock oak
  • Fluffy oak
  • Georgian Oak
  • Long-faced oak
  • Mongolian Oak
  • Large oak
  • Inedible oak species

Pedunculate oak related species

Lectures covering the subject of “food in the forest”. What can I eat? ”Questions, and how to cook? It has been shown that there has been a lot of time for your diet. So …

Sylvanas – forest dwellers

This is perhaps the case of autonomous survival, including forest dwellers. Moreover, it can be found together at the same time and territory. Our forests are very diverse.

It is a climate change that leads to the formation of the landscape. For example, it can be used as a common oak, for example, 3 weeks. And pine forests – to grow dry and drought trees with deep groundwater storage. Pine, ordinary, as opposed to oak, does not tolerate flooding. Oak belongs to megatrophs – lovers of “hearty meals” It is a lot of funeral water. ).

It was determined by the rate of the population of “their” forest. We can say that you’ll be able to find out what kind of people you’re looking for.

Let’s continue the analogies. The main trees, edificators and dominants are “forest emperors and kings”. It is a rich retinue of symbionts – all sorts of assistants, companions, hangers-on and outright parasites on the body of society. Between them, close interaction with the sun. In both senses – direct and figurative – it is the “production process” with the eating of others. This is a consortia, it is a consortia, it is a consortia, it is a consort of animals that can be compared to the main one.

The forest tree forms the second order consortium.

It should be noted that the forest communities are multi-tiered. It can be used in the field of forest rain and oil shale water. in the lower tier. It is a grassland. And each type of consort is confused to a certain, their favorite tier. It is not difficult to understand it. This is a very interesting tier. Pheasants and nightingales, for example, the nest on the ground, underneath the bushes, and the krushchev are deeply buried. Etc.

We are interested in tallowing shallows. They are just filled with the largest stock of pasture (or “improvised”) feed.

It is clear that it’s not a matter of course if you want to eat it. This is a person who is dying of hunger. In other words, you won’t die of hunger in the forest!

Our guide to guide past forest. This is where we must and must be. The second task is to get enough, but not poisoned.

Oak forests – oak, oak and oak trees

The forests are formed by the oak (where it is the dominant edificator) are called oak forests. Oak same oak elm trees, elm trees, elm trees, elm trees, elm trees, elm trees, elm trees, elm trees, elm trees, elm trees, elm trees, elm trees, elm trees. , hazelnut, etc. oak woods. In addition, the oak forests are for example, silytevaya, lily of the valley, eagle-headed (fern), or dead-blooded, that is, without any significant herbage.

This is a subregion for the skin in the wetlands.

Common oak and its consortium

Oak is the main tree species. Biologists and foresters distinguish between many species and phenotypic varieties of oaks. For us, this is not so important – consorting links.

English oak Quercus robur

Latin name – Quercus robur (ordinary oak, or pedunculate)

Description of the identification signs of oak

In our reference guide, it is therefore not a detailed description. It doesn’t have any particular difficulties:

Sprinkling of trees and trees in the open area (photos 1 and 1a).

1. Spherical oak crown in leafless state1. Spherical oak crown in leafless state

1a Elliptical oak crown in leafless condition1a Elliptical oak crown in leafless condition

The trunk is thick, starts branching early. The cork bark on the trunk (Photos 2 and 2a) is rough, strongly fractured (deeply delineated by vertical and horizontal cracks). Color of a pith surface dark brown, on a section brown. It is clear that it is visible in the transverse section.

2. Straight 300-year-old oak in Kiev (photo from KECC)2. Straight 300-year-old oak in Kiev (photo from KECC)

2a Close up of oak cork2a Close up of oak cork

It has been shown that it has been proven that it is a winter forestry spring (photo 3). There are approximately 10% of such individuals in the population. Fall foliage is also characteristic of young trees.

3. Winter form of pedunculate oak3. Winter form of pedunculate oak

It is also a species of the Quercus petrae. Eurasia is a separate short article.

Habitat and habitat

The temperate zone of Europe, including the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula.

It is confined to the floodplains of the rivers (forms, oak oak oak oak), , where it forms bayrachny oak forests. (photo 4 and 4a).

4. Sparse tannic oakwood in B. Hannovka, Khortitsa island (photo by A.Tolmachyov)4. Sparse tannic oakwood in B. Hannovka, Khortitsa island (photo by A.Tolmachyov)

4a. Sugar bayrachnaya oak forest in b.Sovutina, Khortitsa (photo S.Hvostenko)4a. Sugar bayrachnaya oak forest in b.Sovutina, Khortitsa (photo S.Hvostenko)

Upland oak forests, settling even on watersheds.

It is not clear that there has been a situation in the area of ​​water temperature.

Environmental features

Photophilous breed. Megatrof – prefers richly humus soils. There is always a chance to find out how to live. Such a soil “puff cake” can have several sandy layers – like the Napoleon cake.

It is the summer of June (blooming is associated with the summer solstice). This is an evolutionary adaptation, when it comes to the oak-leaved leaves, it is clear that it is a leaflet.

Edible parts and recipes

For food you can use acorns, ear buds and young just bloomed leaflets (light green or reddish), as well as, in limited quantities – kidneys and leafy Gauls “Ink nuts”.

But the most “delicious” ones are those that were picked up after the first frosts. Acorns are harvested for future use. Often, in acadum and dry pits under acorns, trees themselves are persist for a year.

Oak wakes up late. Buds-earrings appear in April-May, and their flowering period is short. Need to collect it.

The second generation appears (see above). In addition, the blooming of leaves is not simultaneous, but stretched for 2-3 weeks. Thus, inclusive.

Oak buds – spring food. Gauls “ink nuts” are kept on fallen leaves until spring. True, as they become obsolete, their healthy qualities (food and medicinal) weaken. The most suitable “green and unripe” galls – on living leaves and whitish.

Acorns

Acorns (photo 5) contain a lot of carbohydrates – up to 47% (including starch 30-35%), more than 3% of fats and up to 3.5% of proteins. Because the taste qualities are bad. Soaking or roasting this bitterness and astringent taste eliminate.

5. Acorns and September leaves of pedunculate oak5. Acorns and September leaves of pedunculate oak

It is necessary to reduce the amount of water. On the survival site Survival.com.ua, another method is also mentioned: they are watered. Obviously, it is not possible to try it.

Acorns are best eaten in crushed form (cereals) or powder (flour). From acorn flour, you can bake bread tortillas, from shredded meat – cook porridge. Below are recipes for cooking dishes, even from fat. But it can be significantly varied.

Read more about Alternative Food. Acorns – ways to eat.

Acorn bread

After the first frost. After soaking, they are boiled in water, then they are baked under cinnamon. Dried acorns thus ground in a mortar or grind into any method (photos 6 and 6a).

6. Acorn meal (photo from Survival.com.ua)6. Acorn meal (photo from Survival.com.ua)

6a. Acorn meal close up (photo from site Survival.com.ua)6a. Acorn meal close up (photo from site Survival.com.ua)

Next, the flour is blended in water (photo 7), baking on both sides. You can’t know how to turn out to be brittle, crumble and burn (photo 7a).

7. Raw flatbread made of acorn flour (photo from Survival.com.ua)7. Raw flatbread made of acorn flour (photo from Survival.com.ua)

7a. Fried on the fire acorn cake (photo from the site Survival.com.ua)7a. Fried on the fire acorn cake (photo from the site Survival.com.ua)

7b. It was taken for a couple of minutes to make it (photo from the site Survival.com.ua).7b. It was taken for a couple of minutes to make it (photo from the site Survival.com.ua).

It is advised that you can make it. If you have natural starch and gluten? In particular, it is possible to make sticky juice.

Acorn crumbly porridge

It can serve as a side dish for meat, fish, “worm”, “larva”, mushroom and vegetable dishes. But the mushroom saute. It is not necessary here. Cooked like all other cereals. If the milk – get a rice soup milk.

It provides with calories.

For gourmets – “acorn coffee“And cake. Oak acorns have been used to make coffee substitutes. Roasted, shelled and ground, are brewed in the same way as ground coffee. The taste is specific, in general, pleasant, resembles more cocoa than coffee. It depends on the degree of roasting acorns. Like natural coffee, it’s not tonic, but more nutritious. It is not necessary to choose coffee surrogate, but acorn cocoa.

If you’re smeared with condensed milk, you can get a delicious dessert. And toasted coarsely ground pieces sprinkled on top.

Oak buds

Oak buds (photo 8 and 8a) – medicinal raw materials. It is above all, a medicine. You can’t find a vitamin “pasture.” April, and they can be saturated. The taste is bitter.

8. March oak buds8. March oak buds

8a. These flower and leaf buds bloomed yesterday. Edible whole8a. These flower and leaf buds bloomed yesterday. Edible whole

Male inflorescences earrings

Male inflorescences, earrings (photo 9) are rich in pollen, which is for your nutritional and healing value. Suffice is harvested mainly from male inflorescences of oak. Edible raw, both when it’s young, with unopened anthers (photo 9a and 9b). Have no taste.

9. Male inflorescences, earrings9. Male inflorescences, earrings

9a. And the leaves in the best condition for eating9a. And the leaves in the best condition for eating

9b. These earrings are no longer suitable - pollen flew out9b. These earrings are no longer suitable – pollen flew out

Young leaves

Young leaves (photo 10) edible by themselves raw. Borscht as a substitute for cabbage or sorrel. Also suitable for vitamin salads in finely chopped form. Moreover, as mentioned above, it is observed 2 times. The spring leaves and the leaves, giving a little bitter taste. The summer generation doesn’t have this (photo 10a and 10b).

10. Edible oak leaves10. Edible oak leaves

10a. The leaves are already leathery.10a. The leaves are already leathery.

10b. Chilled spring leaves - already covered with pimples10b. Chilled spring leaves – already covered with pimples

Summer generation leaves contain significantly more tannins and can cause constipation in large quantities. When indigestion, they are dangerous. At the same time, spring leaves have a pronounced therapeutic effect.

Gauls

Gauls – “ink nuts” or “oak apples” (photo 11), (photos 11a and 11b).

11. Young galls of the oak walnut11. Young galls of the oak walnut

11a Oak apples White filling in subori11a Oak apples White filling in subori

11b. Paradise oak forest11b. Paradise oak forest

There are a lot of times that can be seen. Oak consort Cichips quercusfolii (photo 12), an example of the symbiotic consortia connections mentioned above.

12. Male Oak Walnut Cynips quercusfolii (photo by A.Smirnov)12. Male Oak Walnut Cynips quercusfolii (photo by A.Smirnov)

The egg is laid, the egg is laid into the leaf parenchyma. It has been shown that it has been shown that it has been shown in the article. Thus, they create a safe haven until next summer (photo 13).

13. Walnut is edible, but it is imperceptible in food (photo by A. Benediktov)13. Walnut is edible, but it is imperceptible in food (photo by A. Benediktov)

Earlier tannin-rich galls are used to make inks (hence “ink nuts”).

If you’re in the galls area, you can’t use it. Before cooking, galls should be soaked in water to reduce the tannin content.

14. The sponge is the most beautiful sponge. In the middle of the nut poker sleeping until spring.14. The sponge is the most beautiful sponge. In the middle of the nut poker sleeping until spring.

It is advisable to use it when it comes to hot water. It is also possible (in this case, the edible larva will go into action). Taste – no, but it will come down.

I like it, but it seems to be stew-fry. Spongy parenchyma when cooked well “absorbs” Therefore, it is good to simmer-fry spices, for example, mushrooms and garlic, thyme, oregano, etc.

If you’re gourmet, you’re cooking it up.

In addition, slightly soaked galls can be used as a tea, brewing them whole and insisting. Taste – specific astringent, medicinal.

You should know what the galls are, and they are absolutely contraindicated. In large quantities can not be – it comes to colic and vomiting.

Other benefits for autonomous survival

Young oak bark, small trunks, and Gauls It has been shown that it has been found that it has been found to be an astringent, soybean, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, hemostatic and reparative effect. This is a property of inflammation of the gums and mouth. Broth oak bark also helps with mushroom poisoning.

Apply in the form of infusion or decoction, cooked from crushed pieces. It is recommended for eye inflammation, frostbite, and burns. Oak broth on the skin and treat it to the skin.

Gauls have healing properties similar to oak bark. Fresh or dried galls are also used to weaken scurvy. Powder powder powdered wounds. He also has a very strong effect on his wrinkles (powder-powder) and internal bleeding (infusion, decoction, tea).

Of oak bast – Bark can be woven boxes and baskets. As well as bast shoes or shoe covers. Pretty long bast fibers are removed from trunks and trunks. It is a tree that has been used as the oak tree.

Oak firewood do not spark coal get a lot of time for a long time. Therefore, it is not possible to use spit, grill, pan and pan.

Dried green leaves (oak broom) give a delicious aroma when burning! Aromatic effect, or almost do not. We strongly recommend that these dishes be smoked and served with fish soup and vegetable stews. Brooms should be pumped with a lid or a plate.

Oak cork – good ornamental material, easy to cut with a knife. Lid or a hot metal mug, insert a piece of wood into the lid or mug. The cork goes to the manufacture of floats. You can use it as a cushion for needles. And many other things.

Young heavy acorns can be used when shooting at small distances (at short distances). For example, when hunting for forest mice or gophers. They stun them.

Other types of oaks and their features

There are up to 600 deciduous and evergreen species, including the Northern Hemisphere. Moreover, in the temperate zone of Europe, where oak forests dominate over other forests, there are not only many species. This genus has reached the highest levels of diversity in North and Central America, then the East (Southeast Asia) and the Mediterranean (Photo 15).

15. The habitat of the forest is a natural forest (map from megabook.ru)15. The habitat of the forest is a natural forest (map from megabook.ru)

In the XVIII-XIX centuries, due to their economic and decorative value, Therefore, we can meet many representatives of the oak tribe.

The following oaks are our natural deciduous forests. And most often create artificial trees.

Although biologists distinguish between various species of oaks (for example, there is no difference, it is not significant), . For example, mycorrhiza with mushrooms, in particular, with edible ones – Dubovik, Yezhovik, etc.

Not all oaks give edible acorns, leaves, buds, and all the more, galls. This property – editable – white oaks, which include our pedunculate, rocky, fluffy, Georgian and Mongolian oak. In other species (especially in the red oaks), it is completely indestructible.

Rock oak

Rock oak or winterQuercus petrae (photo 16)

16. Oak is rocky. Mature tree. Mountain Crimea, the neighborhood of Bakhchisarai. Early August 2008 (Photo by D. Mirin)16. Oak is rocky. Mature tree. Mountain Crimea, the neighborhood of Bakhchisarai. Early August 2008 (Photo by D. Mirin)

It is the second forest of the European forests. It is distributed in the region where it’s sporadic, broken up – “stained”; This is an edificator of the Crimean, Carpathian, Alps and the Caucasus. In the Baltic States, it can be found in the forest area.

It is a species that has been bent on the leaves and has been bent.

It is a thermophilic. It is a very dry climate, which is unique to the xerophilic ecosystem (photo 16a). Hibernation of cold-blooded animals, and mountain ungulates.

16a. Locations of rock oak (photo from eko-forest.ru)16a. Locations of rock oak (photo from eko-forest.ru)

Eating the same as that of pedunculate oak. If you’re the brightest, it can only be consumed by youngest blossoms (photo 16b).

16b. Oak is rocky. A branch with young leaves and male earrings. 04/25/2012 (photo from plantarium.ru)16b. Oak is rocky. A branch with young leaves and male earrings. 04/25/2012 (photo from plantarium.ru)

It is considered even more effective than infusion of English oak bark.

Fluffy oak

Fluffy oakQuercus pubescens (photo 17)

17. Fluffy oak. Adult blooming tree. Krasnodar Region of the Russian Federation (photo from plantarium.ru)17. Fluffy oak. Adult blooming tree. Krasnodar Region of the Russian Federation (photo from plantarium.ru)

It is heavily pubescent (photos 17a, 17b and 17c).

17a. A branch of fluffy oak with young leaves (photo from plantarium.ru)17a. A branch of fluffy oak with young leaves (photo from plantarium.ru)

17b. Young leaves of fluffy oak. Gyrnetsovy oak grove in Moldova (photo from tdecologica.ru)17b. Young leaves of fluffy oak. Gyrnetsovy oak grove in Moldova (photo from tdecologica.ru)

17th century Fluffy oak acorn with shaggy ply (photo from bgflora.net)17th century Fluffy oak acorn with shaggy ply (photo from bgflora.net)

A heat-loving inhabitant of the Mediterranean. The Crimea and the Transcaucasia. There are no more than 400 meters above sea level. In Moldova, fluffy-toedubovy forests, mainly of pedigree origin – such low, curved groves, framed by shrubs and alternating with clearings, are called gyrnets. This oak is also often used in silvicultural plantations and urban landscaping.

Fluffy oak is even more extremophile than rock oak. It grows almost exclusively on carbonate soils (chalky, limestone, marl, etc.) – with a high content of calcium (photo 17g).

17g. Fluffy oak on the mountain in Crimea (photo from eko-forest.ru)17g. Fluffy oak on the mountain in Crimea (photo from eko-forest.ru)

It’s not up to 8–10 meters (photo 17e); soils of limestone plate, this oak sometimes reaches 20-25 meters.

17e. Woodland formed by fluffy oak. Crimea, Karadag Reserve. 07.18.2002 (photo by V.Geluty)17e. Woodland formed by fluffy oak. Crimea, Karadag nature reserve. 07.18.2002 (photo by V.Geluty)

Eating is the same as that of oak rock.

Georgian Oak

Georgian Oak, or large-fruitedQuercus iberica

Suitable for the North Caucasus, Transcaucasia, Talysh, northern Iran and Asia Minor. It occupies the middle belt of mountains (from 400 to 1000 meters), prefers southern slopes. Moreover, on steep slopes forms of pure oak forests.

18. Georgian oak leaves. Abkhazia (photo by G.Okatov at plantarium.ru)18. Georgian oak leaves. Abkhazia (photo by G.Okatov at plantarium.ru)

“Adult” leaves are brilliant green, leathery (photo 18). Earrings are dense, slightly pubescent (photo 18a). Acorns are very large, up to 5 cm. In length and more “sweet” than in pedunculate oak.

18a. Earrings Georgian oak. Abkhazia 03/23/2009 (photo by V. Saveliev at plantarium.ru)18a. Earrings Georgian oak. Abkhazia 03/23/2009 (photo by V. Saveliev at plantarium.ru)

Eating the same as that of pedunculate oak.

Long-faced oak

Long-faced oak, or floodplainQuercus longips (photo 19)

19. Long-legged oak has a very long acorn stem. Krasnodar Territory of the Russian Federation (photo by T. Vinokurova on plantarium.ru)19. Long-legged oak has a very long acorn stem. Krasnodar Territory of the Russian Federation (photo by T. Vinokurova on plantarium.ru)

The main breed of the Eastern Transcaucasia mountain-valley and floodplain forests. For example, it is important to note that it is not a problem.

It is a skin water cannabis.

Mongolian Oak

Mongolian OakQuercus mongolica (photo 20)

20. Pure oakwood from Mongolian oak in the vicinity of Vladivostok. November 2009 (photo by A.Chernyshev at plantarium.ru)20. Pure oakwood from Mongolian oak in the vicinity of Vladivostok. November 2009 (photo by A.Chernyshev at plantarium.ru)

Far Eastern view with a wide range. Naturally grows in the middle of the East and the Far East (in the Amur region, Primorsky Krai, on Sakhalin), in South Korea, where there is an edificator, Chita region of the Russian Federation. But in Mongolia, this is the nakhodochka came out. In the former part of the former USSR.

Low-growing tree (up to 10 meters tall). It has a smooth gray bark (unlike other oaks with fissured and tiled brown-brown bark).

It is small, less than 1%. In this connection, its pre-processing is easier than others.

20a. Young acorns of Mongolian oak20a. Young acorns of Mongolian oak

Buds are large, up to 1 cm. In length. Acorns are relatively small – 1.5-2 cm long, ripen in mid-September (photo 20a and 20b). They are more “sweet” than the pedunculate oak.

20b. Mongolian Mature Oak20b. Mongolian Mature Oak

Large oak

Large oak, or OrientalQuercus macranthera

High mountain view of the Caucasus, Transcaucasia, Iran and Asia Minor; rises in the mountains to 2650 meters above sea level. It grows on humus-rich soils. Very drought resistant. However, it is a rare species in the wild. In Europe (Germany, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, etc.) introduced into culture.

Young shoots densely pubescent. The leaves are highly volatile and range from “typically oak” whole-grained to serrated-lobed. But inedible or inedible acorns are almost indistinguishable from the common oak.

Bitters oak trees – Mesobalanus.

It is the largest and most “appetizing” among all other oaks (large-dusting). Their length is 10-15 cm. (Photo 21). Fresh, the taste of the pubescence. It is necessary to soak, boil, sprinkle or add vinegar.

21. Inflorescences-earrings of large-sized oak21. Inflorescences-earrings of large-sized oak

Acorns are not too bitter However, there are indications (S.V.Obruchev “Reference book of the traveler and local historian”), that is.

Inedible oak species

Austrian oak, or Turkish (Quercus cerris). Widely distributed in Europe. The area of ​​Central and South-Eastern Europe occupies, where it overlaps with the other above-mentioned species of European lowland oaks, as well as the Asia Minor. Outwardly well distinguished from other species, Young leaves are also pubescent, and adults are shiny, leathery on top (photo 22).

21. Inflorescences-earrings of large-sized oak21. Inflorescences-earrings of large-sized oak

Acorns are easily distinguished from other species of hairy scaly cap-ply (photo 22a).

22. Austrian oak branch with leaves and green acorns22. Austrian oak branch with leaves and green acorns

22a. Fallen leaves, acorns and plyusa Austrian oak. Nikitsky Botsad, Crimea. (Photo from plantarium.ru site)22a. Fallen leaves, acorns and plyusa Austrian oak. Nikitsky Botsad, Crimea. (Photo from plantarium.ru site)

Refers to the most bitter section – red oaks. Considered inedible.

Since the 17th century, the North American species such as the red oak (Quercus rubra) and the marsh oak have been often used. Externally similar to each other, they are well distinguished from European oaks and red autumn leaves (photo 23). The newly bloomed and young leaves are also red. For example, it’s not a problem. But inedible because of the bitra taste.

23. Oak red. Autumn colors (photo from Wikipedia)23. Oak red. Autumn colors (photo from Wikipedia)

“The remaining species of local or introduced“ overseas ”are either rarely caught, or evergreens. Not suitable for food.

However, there are both “bitter” and “sweet” leaves, which are used in the field of cognac and smoked products. In addition, it is even better than birch broom in the steam bath.

Pedunculate oak related species

It is closely related to the middle belt. First-order oak consorts include: for example, the oak treeworm or red oak bean grass deer butterfly) also some birds (jay first) and mammals (wild boar). Such consorts are permanent and obligatory oak satellites. Second order consorts are species closely associated with first order consorts. For example, it is a dead head, or Saturnia pear, that is, it is an invisible companion rainforest.

Below, we can help you. These include, in particular:

  • common liver – parasitic mushroom-xylophage
  • edible tinder – also parasitic xylophagous
  • terrestrial mushroom-forming mushrooms
  • bracken
  • sneh ordinary
  • forest cave
  • spring cleansing (conditionally poisonous for humans)
  • Solomon’s seal drug, and many-flowered
  • butterfly silkworm (egg-laying)
  • oak larva beetle larvae
  • jay
  • wild pear and her consorts
  • common hazel and its consorts

It is a tree of animals that have fungi, plants, animals, animals, animals, animals, animals, animals, animals, animals, animals, animals and others.

It is not considered to be a concort.

Anatoly levin

Food in the forest. 1.1.1. Common oak

Like this post? Please share to your friends:
Leave a Reply

;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: