Table of contents:
General characteristics of wood-destroying fungi
Substratum – the nutrient medium
Rubinder – pasture or source of tinder?
Other types of tree mushrooms
Lamellar parasitic mushrooms
Wood-destroying fungi of the genus flakes and gifolomy, false (poisonous) mushrooms
Real wood tinder
Features of growth and age changes tinder
Polypore fungi are macromycetes fungi growing on trees and often killing the host tree. With this word a stereotype immediately emerges: a sort of visor on a tree (photo 1). In fact, polypores are very diverse, there are more than 600 species. This is not a taxonomic group – these include members of different class families. basidiomycetes, having a different appearance and united by only one common ecological feature: they are all wood-destructive xylotrophic, feeding on wood, dead or alive, in the latter case, parasitizing on a tree and eating its owner.
1. Characteristic multi-tiered groups of visor-like basidiom (fruit bodies) of the tinder fringed by Fomitopsis pinicola on a living tree of Caucasian fir. This tinder settles on different species, both on coniferous and deciduous (photo from czl23.ru)
Occupying the isolated ecological niches of wood parasites, tinderxylophagous (from the word “phagos” – “to devour”, Greek.) settle, as a rule, on old and weakened trunks, gradually destroying them and freeing up space for new forest generations (although there are “aggressors” that fatally and quickly attack young and healthy trees ). Others are saprophagous (saprotrophs), feeding on already dead wood of deadwood trunks, stumps or fallen trees, half-perennial branches and roots. Usually, the fungi that are included in these subgroups successively replace each other on a woody substrate: the xylophagous parasites “prepare the soil” for saprophages and saprotrophs. And all together they participate in the eternal circulation of substances in the forest ecosystem, decomposing wood and recycling lignin and cellulose to simpler and more easily digestible organic compounds (for example, cellulose is decomposed into simple sugars of the type glucose).
Many tinkers cause significant damage to the forestry and woodworking industries. But at the same time, almost all tinder workers have useful properties for humans as sources antibiotics, antioxidants and many other valuable medicinal substances. Slayers also played an important role in human history as suppliers tinder (and this is not only a campfire, but also the first firearm).
Typically, trumpet mushrooms exhibit a certain selectivity for tree species, although their narrow specialization is not common. For example, false aspen tinder Phellinus tremulae (photo 2) obligate parasite xylophage aspen trees (narrow specialization). The edible birch sponge, or biptoporus birch Piptoporus betulinus (photo 2a) also, like the aspen tinder, is a “one-man”, settling on a birch, but only on already dead trunks (that is, it is an obligate saprophagus of the birch). Another fan of aspen tindergum fox, Inonotus rheades (photo 2b) only prefers aspen, but also parasitizes on other species. At the same time he lives both on dead and living trunks. Its relative, the polyporoid spider, Inonotus obliquus, commonly known as the famous birch chaga (photo 6d), also prefers one species of tree – birch, although it occurs on aspen, and on alder, and mountain ash. This tinder, like the tinder fox, lives on living trees and dead trees, but at the same time undergoes two stages of development. Chaga is a sterile (non-sporiferous) growth of a fungus on a live trunk. And only after the fungus kills a tree, does it enter the second stage of development, the sporiferous one. The polyporum bordered, or pine Fomitopsis pinicola, despite its species-specific name, settles on dead and living trees of all sorts of species – both coniferous and deciduous (photo 2c, as well as 1). The polypor letiporus sulfur yellow Laetiporus sulphureus (photo 2d) also parasitizes almost all trees indiscriminately, but those letiporusy that settle on conifers cause people poisoning (therefore mycologists Recently, this species has been divided into 2-3 independent species, separately distinguishing pine and spruce sulfur yellow tinder).
2. False aspen tinder Phellinus tremulae = obligate parasite of aspen, affects live aspen trunks over 40 years old and no longer inhabits any other trees (photo by V. Kapitonov on mycoweb-stv.ru)
2a Piptoporus birch Piptoporus betulinus is an obligate birch saprophage. It feeds only on its wood, but already dead (photo by S. Krivosheev on the site mycoweb-stv.ru)
2b. The inedible tinder fox, Inonotus rheades, only prefers aspen, but also parasitizes on some other species. It settles on dead trees, but it can also attack living (photo O. Seliverstova on the site mycoweb.narod.ru)
2c. Smelter is bordered, or pine Fomitopsis pinicola on the stump. Barnaul Ribbed Bor (photo by D. Kuzmin on grib22.ru)
2g. Ruby sulphurous Laetiporus sulphureus (photo from Wikipedia)
Regarding the substrate (live trunks or dead organics), on which the tinder fungi settle, we also observe a strong scatter. Some types of tinder – xylophages can develop only on living trees (for example, false oak tinder – photo 3), which is caused by their species-specific need for vitamins produced by this particular type of tree. Others — saprotrophic — grow only on dead wood prepared by previous xylophages (Photo 3a and 3b). And, for example, the edible tinder sheep (Albatrellus ovinus) generally grows on the ground – not even on felled trees or stumps, feeding on the almost decomposed wood of the branch mortality (photo 3c). And there are many forms of “omnivorous”, feeding both dead organic matter on the ground, and the juices of living trees, drinking on the trunks and branches. In this case, it is advisable to speak not about species or population consortia (as in the case of the previously described fistulina), but about the consortium of ecosystem, related to the whole type of forest as a whole (for example, oak forests, complex pine forests), or even wider – deciduous or coniferous forests.
3. The xylophage of the false oak tinder Phellinus robustus is found only in oak forests, parasitizing on live oaks, although sometimes it settles on the trunks of other related hardwood, but also only living (photo by T. Svetlova on mycoweb.narod.ru)
3a Saprophagic trametes multicolored Trametes versicolor settles on dead hardwood trunks and even on the log walls of the houses (photo by T. Svetlova on mycoweb.narod.ru)
3b. Antrodiella pale Antrodiella pallescens – saprophagous, growing on dead and dead birch trees, killed by tinder real Fomes fomentarius (it is at the top of the frame). Sometimes it grows on the trutovik itself (photo by T. Svetlova on the site mycoweb-stv.ru)
3c. The edible saprotroph of the shepherd sheep Albatrellus ovinus grows on the soil in the meadows and forest edges in coniferous forests, feeding on the already decaying branch fall (photo by A. Myasnikov on the website mycoweb.narod.ru)
By and large, the ecological group of polypores should be attributed and liver fungus fistulina. However, classical tinder artists have another property, which is not very characteristic of fistulins – as they mature, they become woody and turn into “plywood” or “cork”. From a consumer point of view, this property is much more important than the appearance or type of food: the life of edible tinder as our “pasture” is very short.
There are few poisonous among the tinder, but almost all of these mushrooms are inedible because of the hardness and woodyness of the fruit bodies. Those that are edible, are suitable for food only at a young and young age. It should also be pointed out that among edible tinder, the absolute majority give a short-lived fruiting body (basidioma), while many inedible form perennial woody fruiting bodies, sometimes even living for 20-30 years (photos 4 and 4a). It is these perennials with the characteristic trutovikovoobraznoy form in the form of a visor and give us a real tinder.
4. “Classic” perennial and inedible (edible only at an early young age) tinder Fomes fomentarius on dry birch. The “annual rings” are clearly visible. “Fomes” in Latin means “tinder”, that is, the mushroom is called: “tinder of fake” (photo by T. Svetlova on mycoweb.narod.ru)
4a. Also a “classic perennial” tinder flat Ganoderma applanatum on an oak stump (photo by T. Svetlova on the website mycoweb.narod.ru)
The appearance and way of life of the oyster mushroom are closely related to the tinder (in particular, the oak is inhabited by the oak oyster – photo 5), however these mushrooms belong to lamellar basidiomycetes. Tube same traditionally considered tubular, or spongy basidiomycetes (photo 5a).
5. Oyster mushroom oak Pleurotus dryinus has a plate-like hymenophore (photo from mycoweb.ru)
5a. The tubular (spongy) hymenophore of the “classic” tinder pink Fomitopsis rosea close up (photo by T. Svetlova on mycoweb.narod.ru)
In addition, there are many species of other tree fungi that occupy niches similar to tinder, oyster mushrooms, liver cells, but their appearance is very diverse and does not look like tinder mushrooms (however, they often do not look like mushrooms in our usual way – photo 6, 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d). In contrast to the tinder of the real, these do not become lumpy with age, like oyster mushrooms. Among them are also edible and poisonous, which will be described in the appropriate paragraphs. And the aforementioned real trute mushroom birch chaga does not look like a mushroom at all (photo 6d). And this is the only mushroom that is edible in a state of complete stiffness – it is brewed like tea.
6. Edible tinder winter Polyporus brumalis from the Polyporov family – stands on its stem as a “classic” ground mushroom. Saprotroph. Found on deciduous species (birch, alder, linden, mountain ash, willow) or rotting wood immersed in the soil (photo M. Karpova on the site mycoweb.narod.ru)
6a. Schizopora, the paradoxical Schizopora paradoxa, is found on valezhe and deadwood of various deciduous species (here, on birch). A widespread type of a tinder dog, but in Latvia it was included in the Red Book (photo by T. Svetlova on the website mycoweb2.narod.ru)
6b. Hedgehog, or coral-type geric Hericium coralloides is an edible tinder from the Hericiaceae family. It grows on stumps and trees of hardwoods – aspen, oak, but more often birch (photo by O. Seliverstova on the site likonsta.ucoz.ru)
6c. The annual fruit body of the herpetum of gericia of the every-day Hericium erinaceum on the trunk of a rocky oak. Gelendzhik TLV, September – October 2009 (photo from czl23.ru)
6g. On decaying wood, especially often on the valezhe and the branch elder elm, the fully edible mushroom Auricularia auricola judae from the class of heterobasidiomycetes grows, which for its peculiar shape of its gelatinous fruit bodies is called in Latin “Judo ear” (photo from animalworld.com.ua)
6e. The edible tea and medicinal mushroom tinder beetle Inonotus obliquus, better known by the name of the famous birch chaga, looks not like a mushroom, but like a cancerous growth of wood. Parasitic on living trees. But his sporiferous stage appears only when the tree dies (photo by V.Afanasyev on the site mycoweb.ru)
Many lamellar ones (along with oyster mushrooms) also belong to parasitic fungi settling on living wood and very quickly destroying it. For example, the famous autumn tree Armillariella mellea (photo 7), its close relative of the thistone legion Armillaria gallica (photo 7a), their distant relative from the family of stanfarievyh opёnok summer Kuehneromyces mutabilis (photo 7b) and completely unrelated to them winter flame of flammulina vemetilute 7c). However, these mushrooms, which are well known to the population, are not considered in our directory, but will only be mentioned as consorts of the corresponding tree species.
7. Fruiting bodies of the honey monkey harvest in the autumn Armillariella (Armillaria) mellea on the stalk of pedunculate oak, September – October 2009. This fungus affects about 200 species of trees and shrubs, and even parasites on herbaceous plants such as potatoes (Photo from czl23.ru )
7a. Armillaria gallica thistle-legged gnome settles on both dead wood and forest litter (photo by S. Arslanov at mycoweb-stv.ru)
7b. The honeycombs of the summer Kuehneromyces mutabilis from the family of strofarievykh – a double of real honey agaric. It is also an edible and tasty mushroom that grows in large groups on semi-decomposed stumps (photo by Jerzy Opiola at wikimedia.org)
7c. “Winter shrub”, he is also a winter mushroom of flammulin Flammulina velutipes completely unrelated to other honey agarics (he is from the family of ryadovkovy), but also aggressively destroys living trees, although he does not hesitate to kill stumps (photo from wikigrib.ru)
Wood-destroying fungi of the genus Pholiota (photo 8, 8a and 8b) and Hypholoma hypholomes (photo 8b, 8g and 8d) from the stropharium family are also widespread. These are far from being known to everyone, but the population often confuses some of the scales and gifol with real honey agarics – they are so alike. Therefore, even the scientific Russian names they often begin with the words “honeydew” or “sham-fox”. Edible flakes and hypholoms will be discussed in detail in the relevant paragraphs.
8. Scale scorching Pholiota destruens – inedible because of the bitter taste with an unpleasant smell. Interestingly, the old mushrooms lose their bitterness and become sweetish, but by this time they harden strongly (photo by T. Svetlova on the site mycoweb-stv.ru)
8a. Bitter and poorly edible lamellar tuberculate Pholiota tuberculosa (T. Bulonkova photo on mycology.su)
8b. Edible flaky golden Pholiota aurivella is similar to summer honeycomb (photo by D. Ageyev on mycology.su)
8c. The moocule brick-red Hypholoma lateritium is the poisonous counterpart of the real agaric rocks, settles on oak stumps (photo by T. Svetlova on the site mycoweb-stv.ru)
8g. The mocha seed-yellow Hypholoma fasciculare is the deadly poisonous counterpart of real mushrooms. It grows in the same place and in the same way as the autumn tree (photo from bracomfotografie.wordpress.com)
8d. The mocha seroplastinaty Hypholoma capnoides is an edible twin of the summer honey agaric. It grows, allegedly, on the soil, and in fact – on the branches buried in the soil and pieces of wood (photo by T. Svetlova on the website mycoweb-stv.ru)
It has already been said that the tinder is not a taxonomic group, but an ecological group in which mushroom pickers unite representatives of different families of the class. basidiomycetes. Far from all the mushrooms found on trees, stumps and deadwood are popularly called tinder – only those that have a “classic” canopy on a tree or stump, tubular (spongy) hymenophore and woody with age. In our review, they will also be viewed from the position of not a scientific taxonomy, but from a consumer one, where the main factor is not kinship, but edibility and habitat. From this point of view, according to morphoecological signs, we will divide them into tinder “Real” (classics of the genre), “Polyporus” (with legs) and lamellar (mash-shaped). Other woody (but not ligneous!) Mushrooms of the honey agaric type, flakes, gifol, and exotic hericia or auricularia are considered separately.
Below in two figures (photos 9 and 9a) are presented morphological types of fruit bodies (basidiomy) and methods of attaching the stem of wood troutine-shaped fungi. The drawings are taken from the monograph by T.V. Svetlova and I. V. Zmitrovich, “Puvers and other wood-dwelling afiloforovye mushrooms” on the website mycoweb-stv.ru.
9. Morphological types of fruit bodies and methods of attaching the stem in tree fungi according to the classification by L. Ryvarden and R. L. Gilbertson (1993). The scheme is given under the monograph by T.V. Svetlova and I.V. Zmitrovich “Tin-mongers and other wood-inhabiting afiloforovye mushrooms” on the website mycoweb-stv.ru
9a. Types of fruit bodies of “real” tinder without a leg according to L. Ryvarden classification (1976). The source is the same
In determining trutovyh mushrooms an important role is assigned to the lower sporiferous surface of the fruit body – hymenophore. Here pay attention to its color, as well as the shape, structure and size of pores (tubes) or plates. Three main types of hymenophore are distinguished: tubular, labyrinth and lamellar. They are shown in the figure of T. Svetlova and I. Zmitrovich in their above-mentioned monograph on the website mycoweb-stv.ru. (photo 9b).
9b. Types of hymenophores according to TV Svetlova and I.V. Zmitrovich. The source is the same
Features of growth and age changes tinder
Mycelium of fungal fungi lives inside a woody substrate (a living trunk or branch of a tree, a stump or a deadwood, semi-decomposed branch outfall and pieces of wood on the soil), on the surface of which fruit bodies, basidiomas, are then formed. Since the beginning of the development of mycelium to the formation of the first fruiting bodies, a long period passes. In this case, as you already know from the example of the liver mushroom fistulina, as the basidioma grows and “matures”, it changes greatly in appearance. Fruit bodies appear on the surface more often in the form of tubercles or flat spots and gradually acquire the volume and shape of a ripe mushroom. Moreover, even in “adult” fruit bodies, the shape can vary greatly depending on the nature of the substrate (solid living wood, hollow or crack in the trunk, mossy stump, buried branch fall) and its orientation in space (vertical trunk, horizontal branch, slit) (photos 10 and 10a, 10b and 10c, 10g and 10d). If cap mushrooms are rather easily identified at a very early age, then it is often impossible to determine tree trumpet mushrooms at the initial stages of development without resorting to special studies. From poisoning saves only the fact that among the tindery poisonous very little.
10. Classics of the genre = tinder true Fomes fomentarius on a vertical beech trunk. Edible mushroom and the main source of tinder. Adler, February 16, 2015 (photo from gribnikidonbassa.ru)
10a. And this Fomes fomentarius, which grew from the bottom on a horizontal branch, is not at all like its classic hoof-like shape. For comparison – inset in the lower right corner of the photo. Moscow Region (photo by T. Svetlova on mycoweb-stv.ru)
10b. Inedible tinder ganoderma southern Ganoderma australe. Adler, February 16, 2015 (photo from gribnikidonbassa.ru)
10c. And this ganoderma (presumably, also southern – australe; it was photographed there and at the same time as in the previous photo) the author of the photo could not identify (photo from gribnikidonbassa.ru)
10g. The inedible tinderbug trametes stiff-haired Trametes hirsuta on a dead dead mountain ash. Zailiyskiy Alatau, Kazakhstan (photo by A.Fokina on the website innature.kz)
10d. And this stiff haired trametes – also on a horizontal branch – “stuck” to it with the upper surface of the fruit body. Moscow Region (photo by T. Svetlova on mycoweb-stv.ru)
It should be said that not all “real” tinder are the suppliers of this tinder. There are several families of false tinder (but the classic appearance) that woody and harden with age. The tinder who gives tinder does not stiffen, but corks: their fruit body inside contains a spongy cork-fiber tissue, which is used to make tinder using a rather complicated and time-consuming technology in the field conditions (at home it’s enough just to soak the nitrate). Tinder containing tinder include mushrooms, in which the upper surface of the fruit body is always smooth or rough, but not cracked. Of the common ones, these are representatives of the genera. Fomes (the only species of Fomes fomentarius, he is also the most important supplier of tinder), Fomitopsis and Ganoderma.
Food in the forest. 1.1.3. Tree mushrooms &# 8212; polypter