First aid measures for active poisonous fish should be aimed at alleviating the pain from the injury, overcoming the effects of the toxin and preventing secondary infection.
First aid and treatment for bites, injections, burns and damage to active poisonous fish, polychaetes, molluscs, echinoderms, jellyfish, sea snakes.
From small puncture wounds, it is immediately necessary to begin to vigorously drain the poison with the mouth along with blood and do it for 15–20 minutes. If more than 10 minutes have passed since the lesion, this measure is ineffective. The aspirated liquid must be spat out quickly..
with furacilin or potassium permanganate solution. You can also put an alcohol or soda compress. With an increase in tissue edema or in the case of signs of necrosis (necrosis), the lesion site should be opened, necrosis removed and the wound drained widely.
The affected limb needs to be given complete rest, splint. Simultaneously with the local general treatment is carried out. At the very beginning of assistance to the victim, painkillers (analgin, pentalgin, baralgin, etc.) and antihistamines (diphenhydramine, diprazine, pipolfen, etc.) are given to prevent the development of allergic reactions. It is also necessary to drink plenty of water (preferably strong tea).
To prevent secondary infection, tetanus prophylaxis is carried out, tetanus toxoid and tetanus toxoid are used. Antibiotics are used (ampicillin, penicillin, streptomycin, etc.). Further treatment is carried out depending on the symptoms of the general effect of the poison. For severe pain and insomnia, narcotic analgesics are used (promedol, omnapon).
In case of weakening of the functions of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, sodium caffeine-benzoate, cordiamine and other drugs are used, cardiovascular agents are prescribed, and artificial lung ventilation is performed.
First aid and treatment for bites or lesions with polychaete worms (polychaetes).
In case of damage with multi-bristle worms (polychaetes), the victim must remove the fragments of the bristles that have penetrated the skin, it is better to do this with adhesive tape (adhesive tape). Then wipe the affected area with alcohol, a solution of soda or ammonia and apply a bandage soaked in fish oil. When biting polychaete, first aid to the injured should be provided in the same way as with active poisonous fish.
First aid and treatment for injections or bites of mollusks and echinoderms.
First aid to the victim of injections and bites by mollusks should be given in the same way as with damage to active poisonous fish. With lesions caused by echinoderms, it is necessary to quickly remove the remnants of needles or pedicellaria from the wounds. Subsequently, treatment is carried out in the same way as with injections by active poisonous fish.
First aid and treatment for burns with jellyfish and cuts with coral.
In case of burns with jellyfish, the victim should immediately leave the water and remove tentacles and stinging cells from the body. They are carefully scraped off the skin with a knife blade or removed with a rag or a handful of dry sand so as not to get additional burns. Then rub the affected area with alcohol, a weak solution of ammonia or soda. In the future, symptomatic treatment is carried out. When cuts with corals, the wounds are washed with sea water, lubricated with antiseptics and bandages with antibiotics.
First aid and treatment for bites by sea snakes.
In the case of a bite from a snake, it is necessary immediately (in the first 5 minutes after the bite) to suck out the poison from the wound by mouth. But you need to know that this method is ineffective, since the venom of sea snakes penetrates into the tissues much faster than the toxin of reptiles that live on land. At a later date, it is generally pointless to suction.
The victim should be laid so that the head is below the level of the body (this will reduce the likelihood of cerebrovascular insufficiency) and immobilize the affected limb. Then it is necessary to immediately introduce a specific antitoxic serum against the poison of krait. Further treatment is symptomatic. Seroprophylaxis of tetanus is carried out, antibiotics are used.
Based on the book Encyclopedia of Survival at Sea.