First aid for a fracture of the arm: symptoms and types of fractures

A hand fracture is the most common accident that can occur both at home and at leisure, in nature. No one is immune from this event, especially children. Therefore, it is very important for every person to know the basics of first aid in case of a broken arm, so that in an emergency you can help yourself and others before going to the doctor. First aid for hand fractures is a series of simple actions that anyone can handle. The main thing is not to get lost and begin to act immediately.

  • Fracture symptoms
  • 2A closed hand fracture: first aid
  • 3First help with open arm fracture
  • 4First aid at the turn of the hand

Fracture symptoms

first aid for breaking handsThe cause of damage to the bones of the hand can be a mechanical impact from a blow, a fall from a height, getting into an accident, strong physical exertion. Children often break bones due to hyperactivity, and in older people they are weak and prone to fractures. When one of these situations occurs, the risk of breaking the bones of the hands is high. To distinguish a hand fracture from severe injury, dislocation or sprain, you should know the symptoms:

  • A clear sign is the unnatural position of the affected part of the arm.
  • Excessive joint mobility
  • Crunch when palpating or trying to move
  • An open fracture is easily diagnosed by characteristic signs — visual observation of a broken bone, tearing of soft tissues and bleeding.
  • Sharp severe pain spreading to neighboring organs. A clear symptom is a sharp pain along the hand, which occurs if you slightly pull the victim by the brush.
  • Severe swelling
  • In the affected limb, the temperature is lower than that of the whole body.
  • Hemorrhage under the skin (hematoma)
  • The hand may be slightly shorter than the second.
  • The joint is restricted in movement, if the nerve is damaged, immobilization of the limb is observed.

A closed fracture from an open one is distinguished by the integrity of the tissues, while with an open skin, muscle tissue is damaged by bone fragments or external mechanical action. And he and the other type of damage happens with the displacement of bone fragments and without it. By the number of broken bones, a fracture can be isolated, i.e. concentrated in any one place, for example, the forearm, or multiple, when the damage affects several places at once (for example, the forearm and hand). In any case, judging by the symptoms, first aid should be provided at the turn of the arm to the injured, and also it is necessary to help him reach qualified traumatologists or surgeons. Already in the hospital, an accurate diagnosis will be made using an x-ray machine, and the necessary manipulations with the affected part of the body will be carried out. Failure to provide first aid to the victim, especially in complicated fractures, there is a risk of blood poisoning, bleeding, tissue inflammation, and the spread of infection.

Closed arm fracture: first aid

closed fracture first aidThe cause of damage to the bones of the hand can be a mechanical impact from a blow, a fall from a height, getting into an accident, strong physical exertion. Children often break bones due to hyperactivity, and in older people they are weak and prone to fractures. When one of these situations occurs, the risk of breaking the bones of the hands is high. To distinguish a hand fracture from severe injury, dislocation or sprain, you should know the symptoms:

  • A clear sign is the unnatural position of the affected part of the arm.
  • Excessive joint mobility
  • Crunch when palpating or trying to move
  • An open fracture is easily diagnosed by characteristic signs — visual observation of a broken bone, tearing of soft tissues and bleeding.
  • Sharp severe pain spreading to neighboring organs. A clear symptom is a sharp pain along the hand, which occurs if you slightly pull the victim by the brush.
  • Severe swelling
  • In the affected limb, the temperature is lower than that of the whole body.
  • Hemorrhage under the skin (hematoma)
  • The hand may be slightly shorter than the second.
  • The joint is restricted in movement, if the nerve is damaged, immobilization of the limb is observed.

A closed fracture from an open one is distinguished by the integrity of the tissues, while with an open skin, muscle tissue is damaged by bone fragments or external mechanical action. And he and the other type of damage happens with the displacement of bone fragments and without it. By the number of broken bones, a fracture can be isolated, i.e. concentrated in any one place, for example, the forearm, or multiple, when the damage affects several places at once (for example, the forearm and hand). In any case, judging by the symptoms, first aid should be provided at the turn of the arm to the injured, and also it is necessary to help him reach qualified traumatologists or surgeons. Already in the hospital, an accurate diagnosis will be made using an x-ray machine, and the necessary manipulations with the affected part of the body will be carried out. Failure to provide first aid to the victim, especially in complicated fractures, there is a risk of blood poisoning, bleeding, tissue inflammation, and the spread of infection.

Closed arm fracture: first aid

If there is a suspicion of a closed fracture, first of all, it is necessary to completely immobilize the limb. If the arm is not immobilized in time, a closed fracture can turn into an open one. Immobilization is carried out by applying a tire, in which you can use any available materials: a board, a ski pole, plywood, a thick branch. The tire is fixed to the arm, ensuring its immobility to reduce pain and prevent displacement. In no case can not pull the limb, trying to set the bones. To properly impose a tire, you need to know the features of this process:

  • The tire is fixed at least two joints to prevent the displacement of bone fragments.
  • The size of the tire must match the size of the limb, but not less, in order to fix it securely.
  • The tire is laid on top of the clothes, so it needs to be cut, but not removed.

It is more convenient to do the imposition of a tire together, when one holds a limb, protecting it from displacement, while the other fixes it. Instead of a bandage, you can use any dressing material, up to the rope.

In addition to applying a splint to a limb, the victim must be given an anesthetic to prevent traumatic shock.
You can take any analgesic drug, which is available in a home or marching first aid kit – ketorol, analgin, nimesulide, inject Novocain or promedol. If the victim is on the verge of loss of consciousness, it is necessary to bring him out of this state with ammonia. Do not take aspirin, as it can contribute to heavy bleeding. Simultaneously with painkillers, it is recommended to give the victim for taking “heart” remedies: valocordin, cordiamine, sedatives – valerian, tazepam, trioxazine. This will help the victim to stop panicking and begin to control their actions.
first aid at the turn of the handUntil there is a strong swelling, it is necessary to remove all the jewelry from the hand. If they are not removed already, it is worthwhile to entrust this business to doctors, who will carefully cut off the jewelry from their fingers or hand.

A straight tire is usually applied to a closed fracture, but if the damage occurs at the elbow or shoulder joint, a suspension bandage is made for the limb, the arm is bent at the elbow. At the same time, a soft cushion is inserted into the axilla, fixed with a bandage. The arm is retracted to the side and at the right angle is bent at the elbow. On the bent limb superimposed wire wire Kramer one meter long, the entire length from shoulder to fingers. On top of the tire is covered with cotton wool, bandages, tightly tied. The arm is suspended from the body.

First aid for an open arm fracture

first aid for an open arm fractureUntil there is a strong swelling, it is necessary to remove all the jewelry from the hand. If they are not removed already, it is worthwhile to entrust this business to doctors, who will carefully cut off the jewelry from their fingers or hand.

A straight tire is usually applied to a closed fracture, but if the damage occurs at the elbow or shoulder joint, a suspension bandage is made for the limb, the arm is bent at the elbow. At the same time, a soft cushion is inserted into the axilla, fixed with a bandage. The arm is retracted to the side and at the right angle is bent at the elbow. On the bent limb superimposed wire wire Kramer one meter long, the entire length from shoulder to fingers. On top of the tire is covered with cotton wool, bandages, tightly tied. The arm is suspended from the body.

First aid for an open arm fracture

First aid for an open fracture is to stop bleeding, prevent infection in the blood, disinfect surrounding tissues, anesthetize, prevent the occurrence of pain shock, and immobilize the injured limb.

To stop the bleeding, it is necessary to put a tourniquet over the injury site at a distance of 10-15 cm. Instead of a tourniquet, you can use a regular belt. It is especially important to stop the blood as soon as possible, if it is bright red at the same time – this indicates arterial bleeding. One and a half hours after application of the harness, it is necessary to loosen it so that the cells of the limb tissue do not start to die. Next, wash the open wound with hydrogen peroxide with clean water to disinfect the wound and prevent inflammation. The edges of the wound can be treated with iodine, brilliant green or any alcohol-containing liquid. If the bleeding from the wound is venous, it is possible not to over-tighten it with a tourniquet, but it is sufficient to apply a tight bandage.

After stopping the bleeding, the victim should be given an anesthetic, as in the case of a closed fracture. With an open fracture in a person, the body temperature may rise. If it occurs within the first 24 hours after the injury, the injured person urgently needs to seek medical attention. If it appeared after two or three days, it is enough to take anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics.

After the event, the broken arm is fixed by the tire. It is superimposed on the opposite side of the protruding bone, before fixing on the protruding part of the bone you need to put something soft.

First aid for fracture of the hand

first aid at the turn of the handIt is easiest to break the brush, because it is the most fragile part of the upper limb. In this case, fractures are classified for damage to the metacarpal bones, wrist, one or several phalanges of the fingers. First aid at the turn of the hand is as follows:

  1. Immediately remove all rings from fingers to avoid tissue necrosis.
  2. Attach an ice pack or other coolant wrapped in cloth.
  3. If open bleeding is present, a tight bandage should be applied.
  4. Brush wraps a bandage that slips over the shoulder to the neck. Immobility does not allow bones to move.
  5. The victim must be given a pain killer.

After these measures, the victim tediously deliver to the nearest emergency room. He must ride while sitting, holding his injured hand with his good hand so that it does not move during the movement.

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