First aid for cardiac arrest: rules of resuscitation

If you are going to go hiking, fishing or just going for a walk to places far from civilization, you should be prepared for all sorts of dangers. And if in the city you can hope for a quick arrival of an ambulance, then in the conditions of the wild nature your own knowledge will help you in the first place. First aid for cardiac arrest is important information that even teenagers should know, because it can help save a person’s life.

  • Causes of heart failure
  • 2 Symptoms
  • 3Rules of first aid for cardiac arrest
    • 3.1How to do artificial respiration correctly
    • 3.2 Technique for performing an indirect heart massage
    • 3.3 Direct massage of the heart
  • 4The consequences of heart failure

Causes of heart failure

Cardiac arrest is one of the most frequent causes of death in people after 45-50 years. And not always it is preceded by obvious symptoms of deterioration in health.

Cardiac arrest schemeThe causes of this phenomenon may be:

  • Violation of the coronary circulation. It can be caused both by emotional distress and by strong physical exertion;
  • Severe breathing problems;
  • Poisoning;
  • Severe allergic reaction, such as anaphylactic shock;
  • Stroke;
  • Thrombosis;
  • Heart attack.

The heart can also stop when exposed to external factors on the human body. Examples include:

  • Mechanical injuries, such as a blow to the chest;
  • Electric shock;
  • Thermal or sunstroke;
  • Drowning;
  • Suffocation;
  • Blood loss in large volumes.

Cardiac arrest provokes cessation of blood circulation in the brain, so the victim immediately loses consciousness and breathing disappears.

First aid for cardiac arrest should begin to provide already at this moment, because the possible recovery period of the functioning of the body, as a rule, lasts 5 minutes.

After this time, it is possible to reanimate the activity of most organs and systems, but the brain most likely cannot be saved.

Symptoms

The fact that the victim had a cardiac arrest, will tell 5 main symptoms. They include:

  • Loss of consciousness. The victim ceases to respond to sounds and stimuli;
  • Lack of pulse. Check it through the carotid artery. To do this, the index and middle finger is applied to the neck at a distance of 2.5-3 cm from the thyroid cartilage. This is a very serious sign;
  • Stop breathing. It is determined by the absence of characteristic movements of the chest;
  • Dilated pupils. It is necessary to raise the upper eyelid and shine a flashlight in his eyes. If the pupils are very dilated and in no way react to light, this is an alarming sign;
  • Acquisition of skin bluish or pale gray. First of all, it is typical for the face area.

In some cases, another sign may be the appearance of body cramps. All these symptoms are very important, and if they exist, you must begin to provide first aid.

Rules of first aid for cardiac arrest

First aid for cardiac arrest must begin with the removal of the ambulance brigade. In the meantime, she is on the way, you can try to reanimate the victim with the help of artificial respiration and an indirect heart massage. But these measures are unacceptable if:

  • Despite the unconscious state of a person, his pulse is clearly sensed and breathing is observed;
  • The victim has a fracture of the chest or is suspected;
  • Cardiac arrest occurred on the background of a fractured skull and crush of the brain;
  • The patient has cancer metastases in the body.

If the above symptoms are not observed, you can begin to provide the victim with first aid to restore cardiac work. The action algorithm should look like this:

  1. Lay the patient on a flat surface. Under the neck you can put an improvised roller;
  2. Throw back your head up 45 degrees and push the lower jaw slightly;
  3. If necessary, clear the respiratory tract with the index finger of foam, emetic masses, mucus;
  4. Alternate artificial respiration and indirect heart massage. The recommended ratio of technician: 1/5 – if resuscitation is performed by one person, 1/10 or 1/15 – if two people take part.

If two people provide assistance at once, then one of them should be focused on the process of artificial respiration, and the second on the implementation of an indirect heart massage.
The effectiveness of the actions performed can be judged by the following criteria:

  • Pulse begins to be felt;
  • Blood pressure rises;
  • Pupils constrict and begin to respond to bright light;
  • Observed patient self-breathing;
  • The skin takes a healthy shade.

If after half an hour of active actions there is no positive dynamics, a large proportion of the likelihood that the patient’s brain has died.

How to do artificial respiration

Artificial respirationThe causes of this phenomenon may be:

  • Violation of the coronary circulation. It can be caused both by emotional distress and by strong physical exertion;
  • Severe breathing problems;
  • Poisoning;
  • Severe allergic reaction, such as anaphylactic shock;
  • Stroke;
  • Thrombosis;
  • Heart attack.

The heart can also stop when exposed to external factors on the human body. Examples include:

  • Mechanical injuries, such as a blow to the chest;
  • Electric shock;
  • Thermal or sunstroke;
  • Drowning;
  • Suffocation;
  • Blood loss in large volumes.

Cardiac arrest provokes cessation of blood circulation in the brain, so the victim immediately loses consciousness and breathing disappears.

First aid for cardiac arrest should begin to provide already at this moment, because the possible recovery period of the functioning of the body, as a rule, lasts 5 minutes.

After this time, it is possible to reanimate the activity of most organs and systems, but the brain most likely cannot be saved.

Symptoms

The fact that the victim had a cardiac arrest, will tell 5 main symptoms. They include:

  • Loss of consciousness. The victim ceases to respond to sounds and stimuli;
  • Lack of pulse. Check it through the carotid artery. To do this, the index and middle finger is applied to the neck at a distance of 2.5-3 cm from the thyroid cartilage. This is a very serious sign;
  • Stop breathing. It is determined by the absence of characteristic movements of the chest;
  • Dilated pupils. It is necessary to raise the upper eyelid and shine a flashlight in his eyes. If the pupils are very dilated and in no way react to light, this is an alarming sign;
  • Acquisition of skin bluish or pale gray. First of all, it is typical for the face area.

In some cases, another sign may be the appearance of body cramps. All these symptoms are very important, and if they exist, you must begin to provide first aid.

Rules of first aid for cardiac arrest

First aid for cardiac arrest must begin with the removal of the ambulance brigade. In the meantime, she is on the way, you can try to reanimate the victim with the help of artificial respiration and an indirect heart massage. But these measures are unacceptable if:

  • Despite the unconscious state of a person, his pulse is clearly sensed and breathing is observed;
  • The victim has a fracture of the chest or is suspected;
  • Cardiac arrest occurred on the background of a fractured skull and crush of the brain;
  • The patient has cancer metastases in the body.

If the above symptoms are not observed, you can begin to provide the victim with first aid to restore cardiac work. The action algorithm should look like this:

  1. Lay the patient on a flat surface. Under the neck you can put an improvised roller;
  2. Throw back your head up 45 degrees and push the lower jaw slightly;
  3. If necessary, clear the respiratory tract with the index finger of foam, emetic masses, mucus;
  4. Alternate artificial respiration and indirect heart massage. The recommended ratio of technician: 1/5 – if resuscitation is performed by one person, 1/10 or 1/15 – if two people take part.

If two people provide assistance at once, then one of them should be focused on the process of artificial respiration, and the second on the implementation of an indirect heart massage.
The effectiveness of the actions performed can be judged by the following criteria:

  • Pulse begins to be felt;
  • Blood pressure rises;
  • Pupils constrict and begin to respond to bright light;
  • Observed patient self-breathing;
  • The skin takes a healthy shade.

If after half an hour of active actions there is no positive dynamics, a large proportion of the likelihood that the patient’s brain has died.

How to do artificial respiration

In order to apply the method of artificial respiration, the following actions should be performed:

  1. Pinch the victim. The second hand to take his chin;
  2. Take a very deep breath with your mouth;
  3. To encircle the patient’s mouth with the lips so as not to lose excess air;
  4. Make a vigorous exhale.

The technique can be carried out in two ways: “from mouth to mouth” and “from mouth to nose”. If desired, the mouth or nose can be covered with a clean handkerchief or gauze cut.

Technique for performing an indirect heart massage

The rules for first aid in the form of an indirect heart massage are as follows:

  • Take a comfortable position near the victim, to the right or left of him;
  • Put one hand on the lower part of the chest so that it is located strictly in the middle;
  • The second hand to put on top of the first in a perpendicular position. In this case, the arms must be straight;
  • Start doing energetic hand pressure. It is necessary to apply the weight of the whole body. The sternum should sag about 3 cm, and with an increased body weight of the patient – 5 cm;
  • After each press, the hands are held in the final position 1/3 of a second. The overall rate of shocks must be at least 1 per second.

The procedure is carried out until the positive dynamics of the victim. If it is not observed, it is necessary to perform resuscitation actions before the arrival of the ambulance brigade.

Indirect heart massageIt is very important to prevent a fracture of the ribs or chest, as in such a condition the patient has significantly reduced muscle tone and the risk of bone damage increases.

Direct heart massage

This method is carried out exclusively by the surgeon, as it requires the condition of complete sterility. The doctor has a direct effect on the heart, literally squeezing it. To do this, the patient is connected to a ventilator and make him a cut.

An unprepared person will not be able to implement this technique.

Consequences of heart failure

Cardiac arrest is a very serious phenomenon, after which approximately 30% of people survive, and full recovery without serious harm to health accounts for only 3-4%. The end result depends not only on how first aid was provided, but also how quickly it was undertaken.

Often the following complications occur when the heart stops:

  • Ischemic brain damage;
  • Disruption of the liver;
  • Kidney disease.

In addition, during resuscitation, the chest can be injured.

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