First aid for punctured, scalped, cut, lacerated and gunshot wounds.

Wounds are the type of injury in which, as a result of external factors, open skin damage occurs. Often with wounds, the tissues and internal organs beneath them are damaged.. 

First aid for punctured, scalped, cut, lacerated and gunshot wounds.

With wounds, the work of the damaged organ is often disrupted, and infectious inflammation may join in the future. The main signs of a wound are pain, gaping, and bleeding. Wounds can be stabbed, bruised, cut, scalped and gunshot..

, especially in cases where the car drags the victim along the asphalt for some time. Scalp wounds can be inflicted by any cutting tool. Often they are marked on the head. Areas of skin at the site of injury are often irretrievably lost. The larger the scalped wound, the greater the risk of severe blood loss, shock and subsequent necrosis of the scalped areas of the body.

Cut wounds.

These wounds are characterized by good ability to heal without complications. Cut wounds occur when exposed to a sharp cutting tool (knife, glass fragments, metal shavings). One of the options for cut wounds is chopped wounds. Their length varies widely, but usually is at least 0.5 cm. Nevertheless, significant blood loss can occur with them, especially in cases when large blood vessels are damaged; but in other cases, blood loss is sometimes significant, as the small vessels of the walls and bottom of the wound gap for a long time.

Lacerations.

Torn wounds heal with difficulty, leaving ugly scars. Torn wounds are more often inflicted by dogs or wild animals. They are polluted by their saliva. Of particular danger are wounds from bites of rabid animals. These wounds have irregular shapes, smoothed edges. Often they are accompanied by large blood loss, separation of pieces of skin, muscles.

Gunshot wounds.

Of the gunshot wounds in peacetime, shot wounds are most often found, much less often – bullet and fragmentation. These injuries occur as a result of an accidental shot during a hunt, with careless handling of a gun, but recently more and more often – as a result of crimes committed.

When a shot is wounded from a close distance, a rather large laceration is noted, the edges of which contain gunpowder and shot. If a bullet wound is inflicted, then it has a rounded inlet, slightly larger than the diameter of the bullet. With shrapnel wounds, the wound is always irregular in shape, and there is a large destruction of tissues.

First aid for punctured, scalped, cut, lacerated and gunshot wounds.

For the most adequate emergency care, it is necessary to determine the location, size and depth of the wound, the nature of bleeding in wounds. If possible, it is necessary to clarify how damaged vital organs are (chest and abdominal cavities, large blood vessels and nerves, trachea, esophagus, brain). If the wound is located in the back, then it is necessary to establish the presence of damage to the spinal cord, kidneys; if there are injuries in the perineum – what are the damage to the genitals, urethra, rectum.

If arterial bleeding develops with trauma and wounds, measures are taken to temporarily stop it. First of all, pieces of clothing, hair and large foreign bodies should be removed from the wound with tweezers. Around the wound, if necessary, cut hair with scissors. The skin near the wound must be treated with 70% ethyl alcohol and 5% alcohol solution of iodine. Next, apply a sterile cotton-gauze dressing from an individual package for emergency care. Several special sterile wipes are placed on the wound, which are then covered with sterile cotton wool and then secured with a clean bandage.

To strengthen the bandage on the head, you can use a mesh bandage, which is done much faster than with ordinary bandaging. When the victim receives an extensive and deep wound of the arm or leg, it is necessary to provide rest to the injured limb. Why do you need to hang your hand on a scarf or bandage it to the body, fix the leg with a transport ladder tire. In case of trunk injuries, it is better to make dressings like stickers, and after treating the skin with 70% ethyl alcohol and 5% alcohol iodine, the wound should be covered with sterile wipes and a bandage with medical glue (gluol, BF-6). To fix the napkins, use strips of adhesive tape.

In case of wounds with severe pain, it is necessary to anesthetize (injection of solutions of metamizole sodium, tramadol), health workers introduce 1 ml of a 1% solution of promedol. In the surgical department of the hospital, all patients are hospitalized with deep and wide (more than 6 cm) wounds, head wounds, patients with bleeding from damaged large vessels, with injuries of nerves and internal organs, injured by bites in the face, neck, fingers and hands and with bitten wounds from unknown and rabid animals.

To reduce bleeding of a wounded limb, it is required to give an elevated position, which is achieved by placing pillows or any tightly folded clothes under the foot. If a hand is injured, then it is hung on a scarf, and an ice bubble is placed on top of the dressing for 2-3 hours. In a hospital or in a trauma center, bleeding is finally stopped by ligation or electrocoagulation of bleeding vessels.

If the injured wound is small and superficial or has deep abrasions, it is enough for patients to contact the trauma center for the initial surgical treatment of the wound. For tetanus prophylaxis, tetanus toxoid and tetanus toxoid are administered according to the scheme. To prevent infectious complications, an antibiotic is administered intramuscularly, often penicillin.

Based on Quick Help in Emergencies.
Kashin S.P..

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