Important in the tourist trip is the proper organization of storage of products on the campaign. Non-observance of storage rules leads to the fact that the products deteriorate and their use becomes dangerous. Many foods are a good breeding ground for microbes, including harmful ones. Getting on such products and multiplying in them, microbes cause spoilage. At the same time, the appearance of products, taste, smell.
Food storage in the campaign, causes and signs of food spoilage in the field, preparation and storage of crackers in the campaign.
Microbes that cause decomposition of foods rich in proteins (meat, fish, meat products, etc.) are called putrefactive. The process of decay is accompanied by the formation of gases with an unpleasant odor.
Causes of food damage.
Two factors contribute most to spoilage in a camping trip. First of all, humidity. Most microbes can develop in products containing over 15% water (milk, meat, broths, fish). In dry products, microbes multiply to a much lesser extent. Therefore, when stored in a dry place, crackers, cereals, pasta, milk powder, dried fish do not spoil for a long time.
Secondly, the temperature. A positive temperature in the range from plus 15 to plus 40 degrees greatly accelerates the process of reproduction of microbes, and consequently, spoilage of products in the campaign. If the ambient temperature rises to plus 50 degrees, the reproduction of most microbes is suspended. At a temperature of plus 100 degrees, many microbes die.
Lowering the temperature to 8 degrees or lower, although it does not lead to the destruction of microbes, still delays their development. This is enough to protect food from spoilage. In the same way, the use of a strong solution of table salt (salting fish, meat, vegetables) and sugar (candied berries and fruits, as well as jam and jam) suspends the life of putrefactive microbes..
Signs of food spoilage on a camping trip.
In order to prevent food poisoning in the campaign, you need to know the following signs of poor quality of the main products. The meat, if spoiled, has a dark color, fat is smeared. The pit formed by pressing a finger on the meat is leveled slowly and not completely. The smell of meat is sour, unpleasant. In doubtful cases, to determine the benignity of meat, you can stick a knife heated in boiling water into its thickness. The smell of a knife determines the freshness of meat.
Sausage, if spoiled, is covered with mucus. Putrid smell comes primarily from those places where the sausage has folds or is tied with a rope. The forcemeat color in these places is grayish.
In spoiled fish, scales are covered with mucus, become dirty and easily separated from meat. The gills of such a fish acquire a gray color, their eyes are sunken, muddy, the abdomen is swollen. The flesh is easily separated from the bones, especially from the spine..
Signs of spoilage of canned food.
Before you eat canned food, you need to make sure their good quality. At first it is recommended to inspect the jar. Sometimes rust, a dent, smudges can be found on it. This may be a sign of leakage. To check the tightness, the jar is immersed in water heated to 70-80 degrees for 5-7 minutes. If there are air bubbles above the canned goods, then they can not be eaten.
Cans in bombing cans are very dangerous for health. The bloating of the bottom, as already mentioned, comes from the accumulation of gases as a result of the life of harmful microbes. True, sometimes the lids swell during the freezing of canned food during the winter trips. After thawing them, the bombing disappears. This is the so-called physical bombing, which can also be in benign canned food. The leakage of the sauce when opening canned food at a height is due to the pressure difference, and not because the canned food is spoiled, as tourists sometimes think.
You can find some defects in the quality of canned food that are safe for health and do not reduce the nutritional value of the product. So, on the inner surface of the cans of canned food (most often fish and meat), rich in protein, you can see bluish-brown spots of sulphurous tin. Sometimes a dark coating appears on the inner surface of the lid and on the corolla of the throat of a glass jar.
The darkened layer is best removed so as not to spoil the appearance of the food. In some canned vegetables, black small particles are formed – pieces of sulphurous iron. In these cases, vegetables should be washed in water before eating. If the top layer darkens in vegetable and fruit preserves, this is the result of oxidation of the products when they come in contact with the air left in the jar after canning.
In banks with condensed milk, you can find white crystals. The result of crystallization of lactose and sucrose. None of these changes should cast doubt on the good quality of canned food. All of them are not dangerous to health. Opened canned foods should be used immediately. Especially in the summer, when the access of warm air accelerates the oxidation of products and the reproduction of microbes.
Code on tin cans.
If the date of production of most canned goods does not matter (they can be stored under normal conditions for years), then the date of manufacture of canned sprats, herring in various spicy sauces, spicy salted herring, as well as canned milk condensed with sugar, cocoa and cocoa are not indifferent to the tourist. Since canned fish can be stored under normal conditions for several weeks, and canned milk for no more than six months.
The date of manufacture of canned food can be found on the code on the lid of the can. A letter and several numbers (up to four) are applied on one of the covers. Letters indicate. K – cannery, M – factory of meat and dairy industry, P – fish factory. The last digit indicates the year (from the current decade) in which these canned foods were made. Previous digits – Permanent number assigned to the manufacturer.
Signs are stamped on the other lid, including a letter indicating the month of manufacture of canned food: A – January, B – February, B – March, G – April, D – May, E – June, F – July, I – August, K – September, L – October, M – November, H – December. The letter 3 is skipped in this order due to the fact that it looks like the number 3.
The two numbers immediately preceding the letter indicate the date of the month. If there is another figure in front of this letter (the third from it), then it indicates the number of the shift that made these canned goods. The number after the letter is a special index that tells only trade specialists about the name of the product contained in the bank.
For example, on one of the lids of the can there is a designation P1574.
This means that canned food was made by fish factory number 157 in 1974.
On another cover stamped 102M155.
This means that canned food was made on the first shift on November 2. In a special guide you can find out that the numbers 155 mean “Smoked herring in oil”.
Some plants have all the inscriptions on only one cover, but in two lines. The first line always indicates the plant number and year of manufacture. Factories working for export have a single line cipher. For example, P4425E, which means: fish factory number 4 made these canned food on June 25, 1974.
Food Storage on Camping.
In the mountains in the evening and at night, the air temperature drops so much that there is no need to fear for the safety of products. Fresh meat bought from shepherds on the way to approach the highlands can be stored even in the summer for 3-7 days. To do this, just put the meat in a plastic bag, which at night in a snowless valley to put in a stream, and in the highlands – in the snow.
And so that the bag of meat is not carried away by the current, it should be placed in a wicker shopping bag (bag), which is tied with a rope to a tree, shrub or stones. In the same way, you can cool butter, some meat products and canned fish. Leaving the bivouac, the chilled products are wrapped in a sleeping bag, without removing them from the plastic bag, and put in a backpack. Onions, garlic and lemons, on the contrary, should be protected from the effects of the cold.
Food storage during transportation.
The spoilage of products in a tourist trip occurs not so much due to improper storage conditions, but because of improper transportation. Rusks turn into crumbs, sugar, cereals, milk powder, jelly in the powder crumble, wet sugar and salt flow. How to store products during transportation?
Preparation and storage of crackers on a campaign.
The safety of crackers is largely dependent on how the bread is sliced. Slightly stiffened bread must be cut for drying into identical slices with a thickness of 8-10 mm. Thicker slices break with difficulty, thinner ones warp during drying, and crumble easily when carried. It is advisable to stack finished crackers in a pile in narrow long bags. This saves space in the backpack, prevents crackers from breaking and grinding.
Filled 3-4 narrow bags are placed in a large plastic bag, which in turn is placed in a bag of light fabric. The fabric will protect the polyethylene from puncture and tearing. If it is impossible to place bags with crackers inside the backpack, they are fixed under its flap..
You can pour crackers with sunflower oil, but then the bread after removing the crust must be cut into rectangular pieces measuring 15x15x30 mm. Such crackers, as well as cereals, sugar, salt, egg powder, jelly should be placed in double packaging. First in a plastic and then a cloth bag.
Preparation and storage of freeze-dried meat on a camping trip.
In some cases, freeze-dried meat is packed in a vacuum or inert gas into a bag of a gas-tight film (polyethylene and cellophane). Although this packaging is practical, it requires very careful handling during transport. Packages cannot be wrinkled. Since the meat turns into dust. Do not place them next to sharp objects. If the film is damaged, the meat begins to oxidize with atmospheric oxygen, absorb moisture, and after 10-12 days it becomes unusable.
Therefore, it is best to transport sublimat meat in cardboard boxes placed under the backpack valve. If the box fails, meat bags can be placed between the walls of the rolled-up sleeping bag and packed in a backpack.
Container for storing and transporting food on a camping trip.
When distributing products among the participants of the trip, it must be remembered that a tourist who carries stoves and a fuel canister should not have products in his backpack that are afraid of the smell of gasoline. Such a tourist can only carry canned food.
Each participant in the hiking trip should have a couple of bag-liners made of durable waterproof fabric, which are placed inside the backpack. The most important personal items are put into one of them. In the other, products. Such liners are a reliable protection against wet things and products in bad weather..
In addition, each tourist should have with him a plastic film measuring 1.5 x 1.5 meters, which during rain can cover not only his head and back, but also his backpack. So that the film does not fly off the shrikzak in windy weather, it must be pre-tied to the ends of a ribbon 40-50 cm long.
Since tourists usually make bags from the same material, it takes a lot of time to search for necessary products, especially similar in structure (granulated sugar and semolina, buckwheat and rice, etc.). It is better to make appropriate labels on the bags or number them.
In the case of the upcoming long advance in the snow, when, due to the lack of stones, tourists will be forced to sit on a backpack in the halt, care must be taken to ensure that products such as pasta and crackers, cheese and others are placed on the top of the backpack, otherwise they may be crushed, and the packaging of powdered milk, briquettes of kissel, cocoa, coffee or concentrates – is torn.
Before using pack animals on complex sections of snowless valleys, before complex crossings on water trips, it is necessary to distribute products in advance so that the entire amount of one of the most important products (meat, sugar, cereals, crackers, butter), as well as fuel and primriuses are not in one a backpack. For losing him will put the group in a difficult position.
Features of transporting products in a kayaking trip.
The conditions for the transportation of products on kayaks are peculiar. After all, putting a backpack with products in the bow or stern of a kayak is almost impossible. It is advisable to pack them in separate waterproof bags.
Some products can be packaged as follows. Packs of biscuits, crackers, packaged sugar, as well as salt, dip into molten paraffin. Once it hardens, lay kayaks deep in the bow or stern so that these packs are not subject to friction. That is, so that the paraffin shell does not crumble.
Based on materials from the book Homemade Travel Equipment.