Heating dugouts and other temporary field residential buildings is a very important issue. Heating is necessary not only for heat, but also for drying rooms, especially dugouts.
Heating of dugouts and other temporary field residential buildings, iron and brick stoves, an earthen fireplace, heated bunks and stove benches, centers for cooking food and kitchens.
When ready-made portable iron furnaces are available, they can be successfully used in almost any environment. If there are no ready-made stoves, but there is roofing iron, then portable stoves can be arranged by yourself. Iron stoves quickly heat the room and dry the air well, but they do not hold heat at all, and as soon as the furnace stops, the room quickly begins to cool.
In addition, the pipes of iron furnaces during heating are very hot and, when touched by wood, straw, etc., can easily set fire to them and cause a fire. Therefore, iron pipes must be carefully insulated. Iron pipes are also unpleasant in the sense that moisture accumulates in them and on the horizontal sections of the pipes in the places of their joints dirty black resinous liquid begins to flow out. To catch drops of this liquid, canned cans are suspended from the pipes, which, although it saves from drops, it spoils the appearance of the room.
If there is a brick, then from it you can easily arrange simple and convenient brick stoves. Such stoves hold heat for a rather long time and warm up all types of dugouts relatively quickly. It is better to set iron and brick furnaces to make sure that the cold air entering the room when the doors are opened immediately warms up.
Options for simple stoves and fireplaces for heating dugouts, iron and brick stoves, fireplaces in hard and soft ground.
When there is neither iron nor brick, then both in hard and in weak soil you can tear off an earthen fireplace with a chimney. At such earthen fireplaces, a bonfire is laid out directly on the floor near the wall, and for smoke to escape from the ceiling, a gap is created, ending in an exhaust pipe lined with turf. To prevent smoke from entering the dugout, the bonfire is fenced off with a wall spaced 0.50— 0.75 meters from the floor.
Heated bunks and stove benches in dugouts and other temporary field residential buildings.
In the presence of iron or tile pipes or at least a brick for the installation of pipes, you can arrange very warm beds and bunks. Warming them with pipes laid under them. If there is a brick for the installation of pipes and the building is not flammable, then the stove and pipe are located inside the dugouts. In the event that the device of the furnace and the chimney (vertical) pipe inside the building is fire hazardous, the firebox and chimney are located outside the dugout.
Options for heating bunk beds and chimney stovepipes.
With weak soil and the impossibility of making firebox in it, a foundation pit opens for the firebox. And for the influx of air, another pit opens nearby, and they are connected by pipes. When the firewood flames up, the furnace pit closes tightly with a shield from the boards. The chimney can be made of iron, brick and wood, hammered together from boards or made from a hollow tree trunk.
Logging and drying firewood for stoves.
In the field, you have to use any available fuel – reeds, straw, brushwood, dung, etc. However, at the first opportunity it is necessary to procure good fuel – dry firewood, wood chips or chopped branches. This is important not only because dry fuel flames up more easily and gives more heat, but also because dry firewood and branches almost do not produce smoke and do not unmask the location of the unit. Firewood can be dried in rooms near stoves, in the sun, in the wind with canopies.
Hearths for cooking food and kitchen.
Normally, food is cooked in camp kitchens and delivered to fighters on high schools, and water is boiled in boilers. But often there may be times when the fighters themselves have to cook their own food or reheat it in bowlers and bowls.
Field device options for cooking in the field, a kitchen trowel and a brick made of brick.
Food in pots can be cooked on bonfires or in kitchen ditches. For cooking food in boilers, you can arrange special foci. Kitchens and cooking centers should be located near drinking water sources..
Based on materials from the book The simplest household and household buildings for troops in the field.