It is necessary to note that the It can be used to make special measurements (laser range finders, distance measuring scales, optical instruments, etc.). Therefore, it will be time-tested methods. These include:

- select the distance to the eye
- by angular value
- determine distances using a ruler and handy items
- by sound

### Determining distances by eye

This method is the easiest and fastest. For all factors of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 m. Fixed in the visual memory. It is necessary to take into account the features:

- on flat terrain and water space
- ravines and ravines reduce visible distance,
- larger objects
- all objects appear closer during foggy days
- brightly colored objects appear closer
- when viewed from the bottom,
- at night, luminous objects appear closer.

Distances of more than 1 km are determined with a larger error reaching 50%. For experienced people, especially at small distances, less than 10%. Should be constantly trained in different areas. A huge positive role role. [nextpage title = “Determining distances by angular magnitude”] This method is based on the concept of a thousandth. The thousandth of 1/6000 of the horizon. It is accepted that all the countries in the world have adopted the concept. Thousands are recorded. in the following way:

- 1 thousandth 0-01, read as zero, zero one,
- 5 thousandths of 0-05, read as zero, zero five,
- 10 thousandths 0-10, read as zero, ten,
- 150 thousandths 1-50, read as one, fifty,
- 1500 thousandths 15-00, read as fifteen, zero zero.

Width or height. The distance to the subject is determined by the following. The formula is: D = (Bx1000) / Y, where it is the angular value in thousandths. In this case, it is necessary to remove the angle of 2 thousandths (0-02). Based on this, there is a method for determining using a ruler:

- pull a ruler with millimeter divisions at a distance of 50 cm,
- detect how many tick marks
- multiply the number of millimeters by 2 and in the above formula.

It is even more convenient to use a caliper, which can be shortened for compactness.

**Example:** The distance of the telegraph pole will be 8 mm (16 thousandths, ie. 0-16), hence the distance will be (6? 1000) / 16 = 375 m

There is also a simpler formula for determining distance using a ruler:

D = (cm or number of millimeters on the ruler) x 5

**Example:** the height of 170 cm and the ruler are 2 mm, therefore it can be: (170cm / 2mm) x 5 = 425 m

### Determination of distances using a ruler and handy items

Linear dimensions of common objects

An object | Height, m | Length, m |

Telegraph pole wooden | 6 | —- |

Telegraph pole concrete | eight | —- |

The distance between the pillars of power lines 6m | —- | 50 |

The distance between the columns of high-voltage. lines | —- | 100 |

Freight car, 4-axle | four | 14-15 |

All-metal passenger car | four | 24 |

Tanks, 2 axles | 3 | 6.75 |

Tanks, 4-axle | 3 | 9 |

One floor panel house | 3 | —- |

Country house | 6-7 | —- |

Railway booth height | four | —- |

Growth figure (average) | 1.7 | —- |

Head without a helmet | 0.25 | 0.20 |

Head in helmet | 0.30 | 0.30 |

Tank | 2.5-3 | —- |

Truck | 2-2.5 | —- |

In the absence of a ruler, it can be measured using the linear dimension. This could be, for example, a matchbox, a matchstick, a pencil, a coin, cartridges, fingers, etc. For example, a matchbox has a length of 45 mm, a width of 30 mm, a height of 15 mm, therefore it should be able to pull out a distance of 50 cm; , height 0-30.

### Determination of distances by sound

It can be seen that it can make it possible to capture Hearing, like the eye, you must train.

- Complete peace of mind.
- Auditory orientation
- Green color enhances hearing
- It has been noted that it has been consistently expressed that it has been found that it has been necessary.
- Sounds are heard in the open area, especially in calm weather.
- Audibility deteriorates in the forest, in the forest, in the reeds, on the loose grass.

The average range of hearing sources

An object | Distance, km |

Shot of their hunting rifle | 3.5 |

Train noise | ten |

Steam whistle | 7-10 |

Car signal | 2-3 |

Roar of a working tractor | 3-4 |

Trampling of horses | 1-1.5 |

Man screams | 1-1.5 |

Barking dogs | 2-3 |

Silent speech footsteps | 0.3-0.5 |

Bursts from oars | 0.25-0.5 |

Cough | 0.05 |

Movement of the car (smooth engine noise) | one |

Determination of distances without special means