How to distinguish edible mushrooms: photos, descriptions and names

The forest areas of Russia are very rich in mushrooms, and residents do not miss the opportunity to use this gift of nature. By tradition, they are fried, marinated or dried. But the danger lies in the fact that many poisonous species are cleverly disguised as edible mushrooms. That is why it is important to know the characteristics of the species permitted to be eaten.

  • How to distinguish edible species
    • 1.1 Characteristic signs of edible mushrooms
    • 1.2 Common Misconceptions
  • 2Advanced list of edible mushrooms and their description
    • 2.1 White mushroom
    • 2.2 Redhead
    • 2.3 Podberovik
    • 2.4 Podosinovik
    • 2.5 Oil
    • 2.6 Leafs
    • 2.7 Mokhovik
    • 2.8Crawling
    • 2.9
    • 2.10 Raincoat
    • 2.11Ryadovka
    • 2.12Polish mushroom
    • 2.13 Dubovik
    • 2.14 Mushrooms
    • 2.15 Champignons
  • 3Reasonable Edible Mushrooms

How to distinguish edible species

Mushrooms are not only tasty, but also very healthy food. They contain substances such as salts, glycogen, carbohydrates, and vitamins of groups A, B, C, D. If the mushrooms are young, then they also contain a lot of trace elements: calcium, zinc, iron, iodine. Their reception favorably affects the metabolic processes of the body, increased appetite, the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract.

Boletus MushroomDelicious mushroom, which can be found in temperate latitudes. Its most common types are:

  • Green. It is characterized by a gray-olive cap, a yellow, fibrous stem and dense light flesh;
  • Marshland. Looks like boletus. The color is predominantly yellow. When cut, the flesh turns blue;
  • Yellow brown. The yellow cap takes on a reddish hue. The stem is also yellow, but at the base has a darker color.

Suitable for all types of cooking and processing.

Russula

Large enough mushrooms growing on the territory of Siberia, the Far East and the European part of the Russian Federation.

Russula mushroomHats can have different colors: yellow, red, green and even blue. It is believed that it is best to eat representatives with the least amount of red pigment. The cap itself is rounded with a small depression in the center. Plates are usually white, yellow or beige. The peel on the cap can easily be removed or go only on the edge. The leg is not high, mostly white.

Honey agaric

Popular edible mushrooms growing in large groups. Prefer to grow on tree trunks and stumps.

Fungus mushroomsTheir hats are usually not large, their diameter reaches 13 cm. In color they can be yellow, gray-yellow, beige-brown. The shape is most often flat, but in some species they are spherical. The leg is elastic, cylindrical, sometimes has a ring.

Raincoat

This species prefers coniferous and deciduous forests.

Mushroom Rain CoatTheir hats are usually not large, their diameter reaches 13 cm. In color they can be yellow, gray-yellow, beige-brown. The shape is most often flat, but in some species they are spherical. The leg is elastic, cylindrical, sometimes has a ring.

Raincoat

This species prefers coniferous and deciduous forests.

The body of the fungus is characterized by white or gray-white color, sometimes covered with small needles. It can reach a height of 10 cm. The inner flesh is initially white, but with time it begins to darken. It has a pronounced pleasant aroma. If the pulp of the fungus has already darkened, then you should not eat it.

Rowing

Mushroom rowIt has a fleshy convex cap with a smooth surface. The inner flesh is denser with a pronounced odor. The leg is cylindrical, expands to the bottom. In height, it reaches 8 cm. Depending on the species, the color of the fungus can be purple, brown, gray-brown, ashen and sometimes lilac.

Polish mushroom

Polish mushroomYou can learn it by cushion hat brown or brown. To the touch the surface is slightly rough. The lower tubes have a yellow tint, which turns into blue when pressed. The same thing happens with pulp. Leg cylindrical inhomogeneous color: above – darker, bottom – lighter.

Dubovik

Tubular edible mushroom that grows in sparse forests.

Dubovik mushroomThe cap is rather large, grows up to 20 cm in diameter. In structure and shape, it is fleshy and hemispheric. The color is usually dark brown or yellow. The inner flesh is lemon-colored, but when the incision is significantly blue. The high leg is thick, cylindrical, yellow in color. To the bottom usually has a darker color.

Oyster mushrooms

Oyster mushroomThe cap is rather large, grows up to 20 cm in diameter. In structure and shape, it is fleshy and hemispheric. The color is usually dark brown or yellow. The inner flesh is lemon-colored, but when the incision is significantly blue. The high leg is thick, cylindrical, yellow in color. To the bottom usually has a darker color.

Oyster mushrooms

It is characterized by a funnel-shaped cap, with a diameter of up to 23 cm. Depending on the type, the color may be light, closer to white, and gray. The surface is slightly matte to the touch, the edges are very thin. The light legs of oyster mushrooms are very short, rarely reach 2.5 cm. The flesh is fleshy, light, with a pleasant aroma. The plates are wide, their color can vary from white to gray.

Champignon

Very popular edible mushrooms due to its pleasant taste and high nutritional value. Their description and characteristics are familiar not only to mushroom pickers.

Field mushroom mushroomThese mushrooms are familiar to all their white color with a slight grayish tint. Hat spherical with the edge bent down. The leg is not high, dense in structure.

Most often used for cooking, but for salting are used very rarely.

Conditionally edible mushrooms

Edible mushrooms in the forest can be conditional. This means that such species can be eaten only after a certain type of processing. Otherwise, they can harm human health.

Processing implies a thermal process. But if some species need to be boiled several times, for others it is enough to soak in water and roast.

These representatives of conditionally edible mushrooms include: true grudge, green row, purple spiderweed, winter shade, common flake.

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