Table of contents
Survival in the polar regions
Diseases occurring in cold climates
Search for water
Survival in the polar regions. If you meet the requirements of the environment, then you will be able to penetrate the winds.
The North Polar Region is a 3–4 km above sea level. A distance of 3 km.
In the cold season, it’s not a problem. In the summer, the sun is slightly warming, although it was the Arctic Circle (66 ° 33? N). In the Antarctica, you can’t get to the sea. Antarctica and the Arctic. Birds fly to the tundra. Seals can be found in both polar regions and penguins are typical of Antarctica.
Tundra is covered with vegetation, devoid of trees.
- Arctic Hare Get your own animals food all winter.
- Canadian deer (caribou). Canada and migrates over long distances.
- Lemming. The most common small herbivore living in the tundra. Lemmings migrate, trying to overcome water obstacles.
- Musk ox Doesn’t migrate, spending the winter in the Arctic Circle.
- Reindeer. The Eurasian version of the Canadian deer migrates south every winter.
- Wolf It hunts for the Canadian deer, migrates.
- Ermine. It depends on their number varies.
- Arctic fox. Another common predator in the tundra, which, like an ermine, turns white in the winter.
If you are looking for it You can approach them, because they are very dangerous animals.
Seals lying on the ice near their holes. However, they are very sensitive. It is a headline before it slides into the water.
Breeding of a newly born seal.
- Goose It breeds chicks.
- Tern. The Arctic and the North of the Antarctic.
- Krechet. It hunts a partridge and a blackcock.
- Partridge. In the Arctic lives all year round. Females dig shallow pits in the ground, where they lay 8 to 13 eggs.
- Swan Also breeds chicks in the summer.
- Diving duck (including eider ordinary). Dives to the bottom in search of food.
- Polar owl It hunts a partridge and a blackcock.
- Plover. Produces food in shallow water.
- Grouse. Also remains in the Arctic.
- Gull. Often resting on the ground.
- Chistik. Dives to great depths and eats fish.
Taiga is the forest in the north. Taiga extends from North America to Alaska to Newfoundland. It is located in the north of the Arctic Circle.
- American Moose. The largest deer in the world. The Eurasian option is the elk.
- Squirrel. Winter retains its activity
- Shrew. Winter retains its activity.
- Forest hedgehog It lives in north america and winters there.
- Forest Lemming. In winter, it is hibernating.
- Vole. Red backed voles live in burrows, they can climb trees well.
- Big ermine. In winter, it becomes white.
- The marten is real. These carnivores, similar to affection, also climb trees well.
- Weasel. The back is brown, the belly is cream or white. Fur affection that lives in the north, acquires a white color.
- Lynx. Nocturnal predator 80-100 cm long.
- Eurasian Black Grouse. The largest bird in the grouse family.
- Woodpeckers Northern three-toed woodpecker lives in the northern subarctic hemisphere.
Smaller plants predominate in the temperate zone. Some of the large black lichens are edible, they are called “lasallia populose”. Lichens were used.
Among the plants of the tundra there are several types of edible. Eskimos eat bear fat Europeans eat cloudberries, blueberries and cranberries. Some mushrooms are also edible.
This is where you can see edible plants. While walking, pick up your food, you can find enough food.
- Ivan-tea (waxy). It grows in the forest in the polar regions. Tall plant with pink flowers and narrow leaves. The leaves are still soft, especially in spring, when they are still soft.
- Iceland moss It grows exclusively in the Arctic, in open places. May have a gray-green, white or brownish-red color. All parts of the plant must be thoroughly and thoroughly.
- Marsh marigold. It grows in the polar regions and sometimes in streams. It has a rounded yellow flowers. You need to be boiled.
- A jug, or a yellow water lily. It grows in shallow water. Yellow flowers turn into fruit shaped like a bottle. All parts of the plant are edible. Seeds can be boiled and ground into flour. Roots can be cooked.
- Lazallia populose. It is found on stones and boulders. The shape of the plant is round, with curled edges. The lower part is the lighter. If you eat it, then irritation can occur. Therefore, it must be thoroughly boil; after that, it can be crispy.
- Bear berry (crow). It grows in the tundra of North America and Eurasia. Low-growing shrub with evergreen needle leaves. Can be eaten fresh or dried for future use.
- Northern willow. It grows in the tundra of North America, Europe and Asia. It has rounded leaves and yellow earrings. It gives a lot of shots and roots.
- Bearberry Grows in arctic regions and in areas with a temperate climate. White or pink flowers. You can eat red berries and brewed tea from the leaves.
- Reindeer moss. It grows in open dry places. Gray stems are hollow inside, the branches resemble deer antlers. For cooking, so you need to be soaked for several hours.
It is a situation where you can’t make it. You are near a large object.
Other factors include: You should not go on a journey during a blizzard or knowing about it; food and water. In addition, during the journey you will have to build shelters. If you have to go on the ice It is very transparent, it makes it easy to determine the distance. There is a danger that you can distance the distance, because objects are closer than they really are. Camp breaks up early to build a shelter. If the snow is deep, use snowshoes. They can be made from willow.
As well as your intended route. The following can help you in this.
- Stars. It can be identified by the constellation of the Ursa Major, which stands above the North Pole. The Southern Cross Points to the south. It is not necessary to calculate the latitude in height above the horizon of the North Star.
- The sun. If you know what you want to do.
- Sky map Clouds above the ground or below the water. The sea of ice and snow drifts create a motley pattern of clouds.
- Birds. Sea birds usually fly out in the morning.
- Flora. The moss will be the thickest. Alder bark is lighter on the south side. Lichen more on the south side.
Layered clothing can cause sweating and therefore dehydration.
Symptoms Urine acquires a rich yellow color, there is a headache.
Treatment. Ensure that water consumption is maintained. It’s your body’s cells that are filled with water. Stay hydrated think and plan.
Preventive action. Drink the sweat too much. Clothing must match the weather.
This means that the body temperature is below normal.
Symptoms of low resistance to movement, trembling, lethargy of movements and thinking.
Treatment. Restore normal body temperature as soon as possible. Place the torso in warm water (37.7 – 43.3 ° C). It can cause shock and cardiac arrest. It is the temperature of the person who has a normal temperature. Ideally, both of them are completely without clothes. If you are conscious, you can take a hot, sweet liquid. It can be dropped again. If necessary, it is necessary to provide it with hot drinks.
Preventive action. Do you need to get up to the wind?
If you fell into the water while in the polar region:
- Quickly and energetically swim to the shore;
- Soak in the snow, which will absorb some of the water;
- Quickly run to the shelter and keep warm;
- Shake off the snow before entering shelter;
- Dry your clothes, eat and drink a hot drink.
It is a serious damage to the skin. This usually occurs when the temperature is below –12 ° C, but it can be at 0 ° C. The victim may not be immediately noticeable frostbite. Usually it is not protected, it is the skin of the body that is least protected, that is, the face, the nose, the ears, the hands and the feet. The first signs of the skin are the skin of the skin, the skin of the skin and the skin of the skin.
- There is no frostbite again.
- Frozen hands wrapped in clothes
- Put frostbitten feet in your friend’s clothes.
- Do not pierce the blisters, but not powder them with an antiseptic.
- Apply a clean dressing to the affected area.
- Do not keep near the fire. Instead, use body heat.
- If a person experiences severe pain, use morphine.
- It is recommended that you take care of medical professionals.
- Increases risk of frostbite.
- Avoid being in the wind as much as possible.
- Do not leave the room in light clothes.
- Keep clothing dry.
- Move your limbs and face muscles.
- Do not touch cold metal with bare hands.
- Especially if you are tired.
- Watch that gasoline.
It can be a bit nasty, turn white and stiff. They will begin to swell and ache when
If you can, as soon as possible.
Treatment. Do not rub or massage your feet. Wash them. If your feet hurt, do not walk. Wear dry socks; make sure you always have a pair of dry socks.
Preventive action. Keep your shoes dry and change your socks often.
It is caused by the sunlight.
Symptoms Increased sensitivity to bright light. Red and watery eyes. Increased redness Loss of vision, sharp red eyes and red eyes.
Treatment. Immediately apply a bandage in a dark room. A cool, wet dressing can help ease the pain. It takes time to return to normal.
Preventive action. Wear sunglasses. If not, make yourself a protective goggles from a tree. Help to reduce the amount of sunlight on the eyes.
Carbon monoxide poisoning
This is especially dangerous in cold climates, because shelters are usually small, with well-filled cracks and insufficient ventilation. Carbon monoxide, which has not been a color nor odor, is emitted from any stove.
It is difficult to identify, especially when it comes to you; the victim
- Breathe place and make sure that he breathes deeply.
- If unconscious, apply artificial respiration; the place must be well ventilated.
- If possible, give him oxygen.
- Drink of warm drinks.
- The victim should not perform a heavy labor until complete recovery.
Preventive action. Make sure that the shelters are well ventilated. Do not forget that the flame should not be too high. Before going to bed, put out all the stoves and lamps.
In the polar regions of the water it is necessary to melt them. It is better to melt the ice than snow, because the volume of water will be greater. This will lead to serious side effects. Limit the amount of water lost through.
In summer, water can be taken from streams, lakes and ponds. It is suitable for drinking. It should be noted that the water can be cleaned.
In winter, water can be obtained more easily from lakes, from under snow and ice. It is clear that there has been a trace of cold water.
You can’t get to the bottom of the snow. Otherwise, it will not melt.
The water is still harder than the sea ice. Bluish tint.
Do not fill your flask again. Also, keep it closer to your body.
It is necessary to eat hot drinks. It is not necessary to make it, and it is not a problem. Edible sea mollusks, crayfish, bivalves, snails, saucers, tunics, sea urchins, and king crabs. Do not eat dead clams. Avoid the small black and red mollusks living in the North Pacific – they are poisonous.
Do not eat fish that have sunken eyes, gum-covered gums, decrepit skin. Do not eat any jellyfish. Kelp and other species of algae are edible, although it should be avoided.
It is not clear that there is no trace. For example with a handkerchief or a piece of card. Attach this wand to another, lying across the hole. The flag will bounce. (For more information about fishing techniques, see the fishing trail, and fishing plants.)
It doesn’t absorb. The ideal is an airtight fabric. Your clothing should also have an inner insulating layer.
You need to consult with a specialist for clothing. Fortunately, there is a large selection of new fabrics, including polypropylene, which is made from polypropylene. If you are wearing a sweater, you shouldn’t have to wear it.
If you don’t have to wear it, it’s clear that it’s absorbed moisture. It is clean and dry. It is better to take sweat. The body will lose heat.
If you socks and gloves become wet, you can dry them by tying around your belly. Try to bring as much spare as possible. If possible, dry them in a shelter.
Shoes are waterproof canvas boots “McLux”. Three pairs of socks that should fit together. If you wear them, they are shampooed.
Shine off your clothes. You can not climb into a wet bag. Air to air out and dry. Shake and dry before folding.
- clothing must be clean;
- avoid overheating – air the body;
- wear loose clothing to keep air circulation;
- clothing must be dry inside and out.
Weather sharpness coefficient at 0 ° C air temperature
|Wind speed, m / s||Weather sharpness factor, ° С|
First you need to find a weathered place. You can not move.
- In the winter, you can find shelters in the shelter.
- It can be flooded.
- Breeze so that there are no insects.
- If you are on the ice, this is the largest floating ice floe. Beware of thin ice.
- Do not use it, as the metal absorbs heat.
- It is a carbon monoxide poisoning, especially if it is a fire.
- It shouldn’t be too much heat for your bodies.
- Shelter should be compact and comfortable.
Caves and overhanging rocks can serve as dry shelters. There should be no insects in them.
If you want to go around the tree, you can use it. If you’re looking for something to do. Insulate the pit from the branches.
Fall wood shelter
Remove snow from under the tree. If necessary, the floor.
Hard snow, on which shallow human tracks remain, can be considered an ideal material for building a snow cover. It should be as follows: 45 cm wide, 50 cm long and 8-10 cm thick. Provide shelter.
Trench in the snow
In the trench you can hide from the wind and snow. You can use blocks of snow for the roof and the door.
Draw a rectangle in the snow. When cutting out blocks of snow, dig a trench deeper than 1 m. Cutting down the steps of the letter “L”, 15 cm deep and 15 cm wide, starting from the bottom of the trench. Leaning the opposite way to the entrance. This will make it possible to get the Close up of a hole. It is possible to construct the roof in another way – by placing the blocks and covering them horizontally, with blocks for the roof.
Igloo, or the house of snow slabs
Requires a certain skill and experience. In addition, there will be a special knife. The diameter of 2.5-3 m, indicating the internal area of the house. Cut out about 12 slabs of snow.
The bottom of the plates should be inclined inside the bottom. This is the way to form the first ring of the helix. Construct the twist inside. It is not widespread when it comes to the slab. When the house is ready, it’s time for all small cracks. Eskimos sometimes insert transparent pieces of ice instead of windows.
Cut down levels – for sleeping and cooking. At the sleeping level you will need insulation. Arrangement of sleeping bags is closer to the entrance. As a door, use a slab of snow; in the afternoon the door should
be open. Do not forget to make ventilation holes.
Seal. Near the entrance, make a door to keep out the wind. It is a place to sleep, with fur skins.
Shelter with a shed roof
If you’re losing your peace of mind, you’ll be able to reinforce it. The roof can be covered with pieces of sod, like tiles. From the sides, build walls of snow for additional insulation. If you want to go for a shelter, go for a shelter.
Shelter with a frame of willow branches
Such a shelter is constructed from either straight or curved branches. If you’re looking for a sod or snow.
Shelf with molded domed roof
It is a rule of thumb for the construction of this type of shelter. Fold a large pile of twigs and bark over the snow, leaving a manhole. Remove the material and all the branches. You will have a dome cover. In the same way, it can be used for small branches, etc.
Recommendations for the construction of shelters
• There should always be a hole in the shelter.
• Well mark the entrance to the shelter.
• The thickness of the shelter must be at least 30 cm.
• Align the snow on the playground well before building a shelter.
• Keep it out.
For a campfire, you can be carrying with you. Clear ground, find kindling and fuel.
Do not make it out. Freshly chopped stones should be made of freshly chopped tree branches or from stones. If not, you can dig a hole. If you need to cook the pot. If you need to warm up the shelter, make a screen.
During that day, you find. Although it doesn’t burn well. When there are no other trees, use it evergreen as fuel. In addition, it can be used as fuel.
Kindling a fire
Before you start a fire, prepare everything. If you have matches, take a bunch of twigs. It is possible to add it too tightly. If necessary, fan the fire. See the chapter “Making fire, making tools and weapons”.
Literature: Technique of survival in extreme conditions
How to survive in the Arctic