Imitation cartridges IM-82, IM-85, IM-100, IM-107, IM-120, checkers for simulating explosions of artillery shells SHIRAS, atomic explosion simulator, device and principle of operation.

Imitation cartridges are used in military exercises to simulate gun firing. The action of various types of cartridges mimics the sound effect. Shots from 82 mm or 107 mm mortar (IM-82, IM-107). Shots from 85 mm, 100 mm field guns or shots from 122 mm howitzers (IM-85, IM-100). Shots from a 120 mm mortar (IM-120). 

Imitation cartridges IM-82, IM-85, IM-100, IM-107, IM-120, checkers for simulating explosions of artillery shells SHIRAS, atomic explosion simulator, device and principle of operation.

Imitation cartridges IM-82, IM-107 or IM-120 consist of a cardboard case, a removable cover with a loop, an upper obturator with a central socket for an electric igniter, a pyrotechnic burst charge, a cardboard gasket and a lower obturator with a loop for hanging the cartridge.

The charge of the pyrotechnic composition consists of a mixture of potassium nitrate, magnesium powder and cryolite, taken in certain weight proportions. The set of imitation cartridge IM-82, IM-107 or IM-120 includes a powder electric igniter.

Imitation cartridges IM-82, IM-85, IM-100, IM-107, IM-120, checkers for simulating explosions of artillery shells SHIRAS, atomic explosion simulator, device and principle of operation.

The fundamental difference in the design of the imitation cartridge IM-85 or IM-100 is the explosive charge device, which consists of a mixture of TNT, potassium nitrate, aluminum powder and cryolite. This cartridge includes a TAT No. 8A electric detonator.

To prepare simulation cartridges for action, it is necessary to remove the removable cover from it and insert an electric igniter (electric detonator) into the bursting charge socket. Imitation cartridges IM-82, IM-107 and IM-120 are driven by electric igniters.

When a current is supplied from a blasting machine or an accumulator battery to an electric igniter, the latter fires and gives a force of fire, which ignites the pyrotechnic composition of the cartridge. The burning of the pyrotechnic composition in a closed volume instantly turns into an explosion, sounding like a mortar shot.

To actuate the simulation cartridges IM-85 and IM-100, electric detonators are used, which, when triggered, give an explosive impulse. The action of these cartridges is accompanied by a sharp sound, reminiscent of a shot from an artillery gun.

Checkers simulating artillery shell explosions (SHIRAS), device and principle of operation.

Artillery Shell Discontinuity Checkers (SHIRAS) are designed to train artillery fire observers. There are SHIRAS of white, black and gray smoke, which are similar in structure and differ only in mass and components in the smoke composition.

SHIRAS consists of a tin case, a lid, a smoke composition, a transition composition, a fuse and a grater wrapped in paper. The smoke composition is designed to create the smoke effect of an artillery shell burst under the action of a checker.

Imitation cartridges IM-82, IM-85, IM-100, IM-107, IM-120, checkers for simulating explosions of artillery shells SHIRAS, atomic explosion simulator, device and principle of operation.

For SHIRAS white smoke, it consists of a mixture of hexachloroethane and aluminum-magnesium alloy powder, for black smoke – of a mixture of hexachloroethane, magnesium powder and anthracene, for gray smoke – of a mixture of hexachlorobenzene and magnesium powder.

The fuse serves to actuate the SHIRAS and consists of a sleeve filled with gunpowder DRP-4, a flame-retardant cord and an ignition head. The fuse head is ignited by the action of heat arising from rubbing it on a grater. The beam of fire from the igniter head is transmitted through the fire-retardant cord to the DRP-4 shell.

Under the influence of hot gases formed during the combustion of gunpowder (DRP-4), the smoke composition is triggered. The checker is torn 10-15 seconds after ignition of the igniter. The action of SHIRAS is accompanied by a sound effect with the formation of smoke resembling smoke during the explosion of an artillery shell.

Atomic explosion simulator, device and principle of operation.

An atomic explosion simulator is used to train troops in combat in the context of the use of atomic weapons. It reproduces on a reduced scale a light flash, a sound effect and a swirling mushroom-shaped cloud of air and ground atomic explosions.

The simulator shell consists of bursting drafts (total about 16 kg of TNT) and a pyrotechnic composition (85 kg). The expelling charge of the gunpowder DRP No. 2 (about 0.5 kg) provides a projectile gap of up to 90 meters.

As a result of an air explosion accompanied by a strong, rumbling sound, a fireball with a diameter of 20-25 meters (2 seconds) shines and a mushroom-shaped cloud cap with a diameter of 80-90 meters remains for 7 minutes.

Based on the book Explosives and gunpowder.
A.N. Kalyazhenkov, D.P. Malgin.

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