Kulemki, wooden traps of a pressing type for catching fur animals, sables and martens, manufacturing, installation, tuning.

Kulemki are home-made wooden traps that for many centuries have been used in the hunting of fur-bearing animals for catching sables and martens. These wooden traps of a pressing type were made entirely from improvised materials, using simple tools with an ax, saw, knife. Despite the primitive manufacturing technology, wooden dumplings were quite effective traps and tools. 

Hammers, wooden traps of a pressing type for catching fur animals, sables and martens, manufacturing, installation, tuning.

Hunter-hunters had several hundred such traps. With a careful choice of material and observance of all the technological subtleties that have been practiced by many generations of hunters, the service life of such traps was estimated for decades. In the past, mufflers were made entirely from natural materials, without a single nail. Instead of nails, dry, hard knots were used. Nowadays, nails, metal staples and wire are not scarce material, which determined the further improvement of the technology for manufacturing such log traps.

Kulemki, wooden traps of a pressing type for catching fur animals, sables and martens, manufacturing, installation, tuning.

If earlier the hunter had to work with the ax for a long time and carefully, then modern manufacturers can afford to do it faster with a piece of wire or a pair of nails. However, in spite of its apparent simplicity, wooden hook traps are not so easy to manufacture even with the use of technical means. It takes a lot of time to adjust the alarm mechanism.

Making and setting up a wooden bait trap for catching fur animals, sable and marten.

Kulemka traps and plate traps are similar, but in a kulemka the caught animal is compressed not by a flat block, but by a log. The horse (mounted far from the ground) mum, shown in the figure above, is made entirely of wood.

Cut down two trees about 25 cm thick, standing at a distance of about 1.5 meters from each other. The cut was about 1.8 meters from the ground. Saw two eyelets into them with a width of 15-16 cm and a depth of about 50 cm. Then cut down two logs 12-15 cm thick and 2 meters long. The log, which is laid down, it is desirable to hang. The lower log should lie still and not rotate, and the upper one should move freely up and down.

Kulemki, wooden traps of a pressing type for catching fur animals, sables and martens, manufacturing, installation, tuning.

On the lower log, when cutting, make a notch in the form of a step for emphasizing the crush. It is imperative to make a roof over the installed muffler. Insert three or four sticks into the ground with flyers at the end, put thin poles and a spruce on them. You can lean the roof on one side on the crush, which will make it heavier, but in this case, the guard may not be able to withstand overloads after snowfalls. Raise the crush of a mummy to a sable, a marten -18-20 cm. The crush weight is at least 25 kg. Crush can be weighted with additionally piled logs.

Kulemki, wooden traps of a pressing type for catching fur animals, sables and martens, manufacturing, installation, tuning.

The bell guards are made in the same way as for a die. In addition to the shuttle for the muffler, you can make a guard consisting of a gatehouse and a nut. A guard about 12 cm long is hung on a thick (not less than 1 mm) fishing line or thin rope. The upper end he abuts against a depression in the crush, and the lower end into the neck of the nut. The opposite end of the nut must be tied to the lower log. Nut length about 1 meter.

Kulemki, wooden traps of a pressing type for catching fur animals, sables and martens, manufacturing, installation, tuning.

The bait is suspended at a certain distance from the lower log. The animal seeks to take the bait, steps on the doorstep, the gatehouse is released and the top log presses the animal. The bait must be positioned so that the animal could not reach it from the post with the eye. Instead of time-consuming eyelets for the construction of horse mallets, you can use guides in the form of sticks or staples pinned to a tree. For better glide, the side surfaces of the rails and the top log-crush can be tacked.

Installing and setting up a wooden bait trap for catching wild animals on the ground.

Wooden kulemki traps can be installed not only on trees, but also on the ground. Such a trap is very effective at the beginning of the season, along the black-tropic path or in a period of little snow. The figure below depicts a grassroots (ground) installation of a moth with a guard made of a rope loop, a gatehouse and a nut.

Kulemki, wooden traps of a pressing type for catching fur animals, sables and martens, manufacturing, installation, tuning.

Such a mummy is installed near the trunk of a thick tree. Drive four guide sticks into the ground (two with flyers at the top). The distance between the pairs of folders is about 80 cm. Lay down the cut log 15-18 cm thick and 120-130 cm long. Then pick up the top log crush, 15-18 cm thick, 2-2.5 meters long. Put one end of the crush on the chock, the thickness of which should be equal to the thickness of the lower log. Make sure chocks do not roll on the ground.

You can also make the lower log long, like on a horse’s feather. Put a transverse stick on the flyers with a length of 35-40 cm. Put on the top log a rope loop, throw it over the cross-beam and fix it on the gatehouse, which, in turn, must be thrust into the cutout of the nut. Tie the opposite end of the nut to the lower log. Lifting height crush of a mum on sable and marten 18-20 cm.

Kulemki, wooden traps of a pressing type for catching fur animals, sables and martens, manufacturing, installation, tuning.

Stick sticks between the bun and the tree to make a kind of courtyard. Put the bait inside the courtyard, make a dense roof from the spruce top. Carefully ensure that the beast has only one way to the bait through the threshold of the guard. With insufficient weight, crush weight it with an additional log.

Based on materials from the B.M.Zhitkov Research Institute of Hunting and Animal Breeding.

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