If someone asks what might be the worst manmade catastrophe in the future, the answer can easily be seen, a nuclear war. During the cold war between the United States of America and the then Soviet Union, people thought that a nuclear war was inevitable. Although the cold war ended in the early 1990s, the possibility of a nuclear war still remains, as some of the powerful countries possess nuclear weapons.
In any critical condition, a statement by a leader to use this weapon can even wipe out the entire world. For that reason, people in general like us should learn to survive in this catastrophe created by man. If you are aware of the devastating result of the nuclear bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, you may wonder how it is even possible to survive in such a situation.
This short article will guide you to learn some crucial techniques to survive in a nuclear war.
Learn about nuclear weapons
The most powerful weapon invented to date is nuclear weapons. It can cause devastating effect; The shocking result can be found in the history of World War II. More than 246,000 people were killed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The scientists classified nuclear weapons into two classes, one is Fission Pumps (A Pumps) and the other is Fusion Pumps (H Pumps).
- Fission pumps (pumps A): It is the basic form of the nuclear bomb. So far, this bomb was used in the war camps. How it works: in this type of bomb, at first, neutrons hit the nuclei of heavy atoms. It divides these nuclei. As a result, huge amounts of energy are released. In addition to that, additional neutrons are also released. These neutrons hit other nuclei and, in this way, the process continues and produces enormous energy.
- Fusion pumps (H-Bombs): The fusion weapons are hundreds of times more powerful than the fission bombs used in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The arsenal of EE. UU And Russia own some of these weapons. How it works: this pump mainly uses the excessive heat from the fission pumps. This heat compresses and heats two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium. These two isotopes fuse and release large amounts of energy. As this bomb requires a large amount of energy, for that reason these weapons are also called “thermonuclear weapons”.
It is always better to make a plan to prevent or lessen the damage. For a contemplated nuclear war, you must make a plan in advance.
Here are some suggestions for making such a plan:
Start planning: If a nuclear attack occurs, the best thing to do is to avoid going outside. You must stay in your shelter for a minimum of 48 hours; It’s better if you stay there longer. Try to store food, water and medical supplies in advance. If you need a special kit necessary, do not forget to save it too.
Store dry and non-perishable foods: Dry and non-perishable foods can last a long time. The best options are those foods, which contain carbohydrates in large quantities. Some of them are: honey, sugar, white rice, beans, oats, cookies, milk powder, etc. If you store canned foods, do not forget to keep a can opener for them.
Water: You must store water in food grade plastic containers. Consider consuming one gallon of water for one person every day. On top of that, try to keep a water purifier too. To purify the water, you must keep the domestic bleach and the Lugol solution.
Medical supplies: Even some medical articles can bring difference between life and death. It is best to store at least the following items:
- First aid kit: You can buy a pre-packaged first aid kit. However, you can do it yourself. To make one, keep sterile gauze, bandages, scissors, tweezers (to collect small or thin objects), antibiotic ointment, a working thermometer and a blanket.
- Instruction booklet for the first aid kit: You must buy an authentic brochure for the first aid kit. For that reason, you can collect it from organizations such as the Red Cross. You can also search for it on Google, but it’s better to find the brochure from an authentic source (article or video). He must learn to bandage, apply CPR, treat a burned area and help prevent shock (insufficient blood flow through important organs and tissues).
Collect instruments for communication: At a crucial moment like the nuclear attack, it will be very important for you to maintain communication. You must be notified on the one hand, and you must inform others of your position on the other. For these two purposes, you must store at least the following items:
- A radio: A radio is essential to know the updates. You can have a radio on your smartphones. However, you can store a particular radio for the emergency. If your radio is a battery-operated model, also keep some spare batteries. You can have a solar energy radio.
- A whistle: A whistle will be essential to give a signal.
- A cell phone: It should not be expected that mobile companies can execute their operations in such a situation. However, you must save one. Try to find a solar charger for your phone.
Some other miscellaneous items: You must save some other important emergency kits. These are flashlights and batteries for him, some masks against dust, adhesive tapes, handkerchiefs and wipes for personal hygiene, a key and tongs (to turn off the gas and water line).
Always listen to the news update: Nuclear war will not come out of nowhere, but a country can apply its nuclear weapons to another country under a critical political condition. The most likely position is that both countries are involved in a war with each other. For that reason, always listen to the news update, especially when your country is in a major political crisis. Even a particular region of a country can be destroyed if a nuclear bomb is applied.
However, the immediate effect of this can be more dangerous. Each country uses some code work to alert its people of such danger. For example, the United States of America and Canada use the word DEFCON. DEF is derived from the Defense and the NOC is derived from the Condition.
Evaluate the risk of nuclear attack and make a plan for evacuation: If you can keep recent updates from your country, you can evaluate the possibility of being attacked by nuclear weapons. If you discover that a nuclear attack is imminent, you must leave your home and find a suitable shelter where the effect of the nuclear bomb does not come.
You can look for the following infrastructures near your home and make a plan to take refuge in these places considering the possibility of being attacked:
- The nearest airfield and naval base: It is very likely that these infrastructures will be attacked even in a limited nuclear war. Large and common aerodromes and naval areas will be high risk areas. It will be better if you avoid these areas.
- The commercial ports: Enemy countries will target these places to hinder and destroy the economy and communication within their country. These places will be at some risk of being attacked by nuclear weapons.
- Tracks (more than 10,000 feet or 3,048 m): These clues are also essential for communication and the economy of your state. Avoid these places as the enemy country will target this place and try to destroy it completely using nuclear weapons.
- Government buildings: These are crucial to operate the local government of a particular area. For that reason, if it is a limited version of a nuclear attack, then it is less likely to be attacked. However, if it is a total nuclear attack, these infrastructures will certainly be attacked.
- Industrial cities: These are important for a country since these areas produce the necessary products. It is less likely that these areas will be attacked in the event of an extreme nuclear war.
How to survive in an imminent attack.
Now you are prepared for the nuclear attack. However, the question is how you can even survive in such an attack when it is imminent. The next section of this article will guide you through this.
Try to find a refuge immediately: to understand if the attack is imminent, you should consider the geopolitical condition. Apart from this, the best warning for an imminent nuclear attack is the siren. If there is no siren or warning for an attack, then the explosion itself is the way to know that you are under attack.
Now, consider the following possibilities:
- If you are close to the explosion (it is also called ground zero), then you can not expect to be alive. The only exception could be if you are in a “very safe” place, which can protect you from radiation.
- If you are a few miles away from scratch, you will have ten to thirty seconds until the waves of the explosion hit you.
You should never look directly at the explosion or fireball; It can cause blindness temporarily. Remember, the damage depends on the size and power of the pump and the weather conditions. You can suffer thermal burns (third degree) even if you are eight kilometers or five miles from the zero point.
If it is 32 kilometers or 20 miles away from the zero point, the heat of the explosion can burn your skin. The wind of the attacked area will reach a maximum of almost 960 km / hr or 600 mph.
As you now understand how much time you have, consider the following tasks to save you from the attack:
- Some countries have atomic shelters. Search any type of shelter. When you hear the radio signal or warning, arrive and stay there safely.
- If you do not find a shelter, it is best to lie on your stomach in a depressed area. Try to cover your skin as far as possible. You can also dig the soil quickly to do it.
- If you are in a house or a closed place, stay there only if you are sure that the building will not be damaged by heat and radiation. Rather, the wall of the building will provide protection. It also depends on how close you are to the ground zero and the construction of the building. Stay away from windows; These will certainly suffer damage. It would be better if you are in a room without any windows.
- Avoid flammable things, such as oil or oil-based material and nylon.
Make a shield against radiation: if you have decided to stay in a ditch, then make a roof over it. If you are inside a house, pile up dirt, dirt or any other hard material. You can use the following materials to reduce the effect of radiation:
- Steel: You need 21cm steel or 0.7 feet wide to reduce the radiation.
- Rock: You must stack rocks to form a wall 70 to 100 cm or two to three feet wide.
- Concrete: Make a 66 cm or 2.2 ft wide wall using concrete to protect against radiation.
- Wood: If you can make a wall of 2.5 m or 8.8 feet wide using wood, then you can save yourself from the radiation.
- Other materials: You can use the following materials to make a protective wall against radiation.
- Soil: the width of the wall must be 1 m or 3.3 feet
- Ice: the width should be 2 m or 6.6 feet
- Snow: the wall must be 6m or 20-22 feet wide
Consider staying in the safe place for 8 to 9 days: you should never be exposed outside during the first 48 hours. The objective is to avoid fission products and radiation from the explosion. Fortunately, the most lethal fission product, radioiodine, loses its half-life in the first eight to nine days.
Limit your exposure within this time limit. It takes ninety days to decompose naturally. However, two other main products are cesium and strontium. They are absorbed by nature; They can be found in food products. The wind can take them thousands of miles away; So even if you are so far from the zero point, it is likely that you are not really sure.
Try to manage the food, even if you store it, it will end in the first days. You have to go out to pick up food. If the help does not reach you, you must collect food from abroad.
Here are some tips:
- Water: Never consume open water. You must collect water from a spring, a covered well or some other underground source. The streams and the water of the lake are the last resources. You can make a filter by digging a hole a foot from the shore and collecting the water, which filters there. Boil the water before drinking it to kill the harmful bacteria. If you are in a building, the water is safe. However, if there is no water in the house, then use the tap water from the highest point of the house and then use the water from the lowest point.
- Canned food: It is good to consume them as long as there are no punctures in the can.
- Animals: You can eat animals, but be selective. Avoid the heart, the liver and the kidneys. Do not eat meat near the bones because it contains radiation.
- Plants: It is better to eat roots and understory plants, such as carrots and potatoes.
- Appropriate clothing: Try to cover the whole body when going to be exposed to radiation. Clean your clothes and wash your exposed area as soon as possible.
Treat your affected area:
- Minor burn Another name is beta burn. Immerse your burned area in cold water for five minutes. Remove contaminants by washing them if the skin begins to blister or break, but never break the blisters. Cover the area only this situation; Otherwise, wash the area and protect the burned area by applying petroleum jelly.
- Thermal burn It is also called severe burn; It can even be deadly. Remember these steps to treat a thermal burn.
- Avoid any subsequent contamination.
- Remove the cover cloth very gently. If it is stuck in the burned area, do not remove it. Do not apply ointment on the burned area. In a serious scenario, call the medical team.
- Never use a regular sterile medical bandage, that are not specially destined to the burned area. The non-adhesive dressing is suitable for short-term use; You can use a plastic wrap for a longer period.
The saddest truth is that it is very difficult for a victim to survive.
When the death of the victim is imminent, it will be better to apply the resources to those who are in better medical conditions. Very young and old people are vulnerable to nuclear attacks.