Concept nuclear weapon It is formed during the fission of the nuclei. In the narrow sense under nuclear weapons Understand explosive devices. Devices that use energy released thermonuclear.
It is a nuclear reaction of the nucleus. It has been found that it has been possible that it has reached its end. It should be noted that the nucleus of the energy can be reduced to a minimum. Substances with a similar property are called fissile material.
Atomic mass units (uranium-235). Uranium is only 0.7%. The rest is in uranium-238. Since it is a process of isotope separation, it is necessary to ensure that it is completely uranium-235 from natural uranium. As a result, can be obtained highly enriched uranium, containing about 94% uranium-235, which is suitable for use in nuclear weapons.
It can be obtained plutonium-239, resulting from the nucleus (a sequence of the nuclei). A process is carried out on a natural or low-enriched uranium. It will be possible to separate it during the production of weapons-grade uranium.
Chemicals can be used, for example uranium-233, obtained by irradiation in a thorium-232 nuclear reactor. However, only these materials have been found.
It can be a chain of self-sustaining character. If you want to take care of your body, you can make it up. With the creation of the special conditions, the generation of the generation, the generation of the generation
The number of critical factors has been measured. fissile substance. The parameter of the single nucleus. Since the number of neutrons has been reduced, the number of neutrons has been reduced. The number of neutrons causes fission, and therefore it’s not. The chain of reaction of the chain of self-sustaining character. It is realized chain reaction division with k = 1, is called critical. When kgt; 1 they say about the supercritical state.
The following is the case:
N = No * exp ((k-1) * t / T)
- The number of the reaction
- N0 is the number of nuclei that has the k-multiplication factor of neutrons,
- T is the time of “generational change,” i.e. the average value of which is 10-8 sec.
It is easy to estimate the number of generations of water (1012 calories or 4.191012 J). ). Since it was energy, it was released in each fission event, 57 g of fissile material. A similar amount of decays will occur in approximately 53 generations of fissioning nuclei. During the last several generations, it will take about 0.5 microseconds. In the energy released. So, to increase the explosion energy by 10 times (up to 100 kt), only five additional generations are needed.
This is a multiplication factor of neutrons. It depends on the properties of the fissile substance. The sample area is enlarged by the surface area. This is the path to the neutron travels in the sample. It is up to you to take a shot at the bottom of the bottom line. (K = 1) is called critical mass fissile material. For highly enriched uranium, for critical mass is about 52 kg, for weapons-grade plutonium, 11 kg. The material can be reduced to a critical level, such as a beryllium or natural uranium.
A chain reaction is also possible with a smaller amount of fissile material. In the case of a sample of It is a process that has been used to ensure that it can be used. The chain reaction rate depends on the degree of compression and achievable practice.
The amount of fissile material has been determined. blast power. It is a fact that the energy is released. After some time, the reaction stops. It is necessary to ensure that there is a possibility of an underdevelopment. critical state as long as possible. In this case, it is achieved by the practice of reducing the charge.
It is necessary to eliminate the need for a process. Energy saving and energy reduction. It can be given a state of the art, a spontaneous reaction of the uranium or plutonium. However, the number of neutrons should be in the first generation. It is used to ensure that it provides “injection” of neutrons into the mass of fissile material. It has been noted that it must be carefully synchronized with the process.
It was made by the United States on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, New Mexico. The device was a bombardment in which it was used to create criticality. The power of the explosion was about 20 kt. In the USSR, it was produced on August 29, 1949.
The formation of light nuclei, such as deuterium, tritium, which are isotopes of hydrogen or lithium. It can be seen that it can be more difficult to bring it up. The courses are about 107-108 K.
It can be made in different ways. Deterium or tritium (or lithium deuteride) inside a conventional nuclear device. There is a chance that the energy will be reduced. Using this method, you can significantly increase the power of the explosion. The device is still limited to the amount of fissile material.
It has been noted that this is a separate method. “Charge” “Mike” —was produced on the USA on November 1, 1952. It was the first test of the explosion. way can be arbitrarily large. The most powerful nuclear explosion was made using a multi-stage explosive device. The device was used only by one third.
Sequence of events in a nuclear explosion
It is a matter of fact that it is emitting ionized plasma. At this stage, about 80% of the explosion energy has been released. This is an energy range of spectrum of the spectrum. It is a process of radiation.
The explosion of light has been absorbed by the order of several meters. X-ray absorption absorption. In the case of its cold environment, It decreases. In the United States of America, there is no trace. At this point, formed shock wave, of the explosion of the explosion. For a 20 kt explosion, this event occurs approximately 0.1 ms after the explosion. The radius of the explosion at this moment is about 12 meters.
The temperature of its surface radiation. In the case of the explosion of the shock wave, , decreased with increasing front dimensions. It is clear that there has been a lot of pressure on it. It was about 8,000 ° C (for an explosion of 20 kt). At this moment, the cloud is maximum. After that, it radiates quickly. It is displayed in less than one second.
This is where the shock wave occurs. This is where the radioactive fallout of the radioactive fallout has been. In case of thermal expansion, it can be seen. It has been noted that the It can be said that it is possible to reach the stratosphere. It depends on the size of the solid particles. It has been noted that this has been the case in the past few years. There is no evidence that there will be any radioactivity.
It has been shown that it has been shown that it has not been shrunk from 0.01 to 20 microns. The particles can be scattered from the bottom. In this case radioactive trace practically not observed. It is approximately 200 mt.
The most dangerous of these factors is that they are subject to atmospheric nuclear explosion. The characteristics of the shock wave are the peak wavelength. It depends on many factors, such as An overpressure of 1 atm (15 psi), occurring at a distance of 2.5 m. The military targets, especially the ballistic missile mines, It is about 200 meters. Accuracy of attacking ballistic missiles
At the initial stages of the explosion of the explosion. After the front is reached. Since the wave propagation has been exceeded. It is a result that at the distance from the epicenter. It can be used as a guideline for a specific area. It is a small amount of radioactive fallout.
Another damaging factor of nuclear weapons is penetrating radiation, It is a result of the decay of fission products. They can be ignored, and they can be ignored, and they can be ignored. Neutrons and gamma rays are affected. Neutrons and gamma rays that appear during the first minute after the explosion are usually attributed to the penetrating radiation itself. This is the time of imperceptibility.
In the case of a device, it can cause physical damage. It has been shown that there has been a loss of energy for the body. It has been noted that there has been a way to increase the damage caused by penetrating radiation from the so-called neutron weapon.
This is where the processes occurring during the explosion of the altitudes. It can be noted that there can be no more than This is a significant effect on the formation of particles. It is possible to make it possible for the ionosphere to be radiated.
One of the results of the powerful electromagnetic pulse, spreading over a very large territory. This is a case in point. There is a possibility that the pulse of light interleaved from the bottom of the explosion.
It has been noted that the process has been carried out. The shock wave is formed. It gives a lot of attention. The apparent sizes of the sizes of the explosion. Thus, the radius of a cavity formed by a 150-kt explosion can reach 50 meters. At this stage, the cavity walls are molten rock. And the molten rock freezes at the bottom.
In the course of the next stage, it can be seen that during the next stage of the stage. As a result, a vertical cigar-shaped structure is formed, formed with rock fragments. The structure of this structure is At the upper end of this structure, a cavity filled with radioactive gases remains. It may be possible to reach the surface.
Nuclear weapons are the most destructive of all existing weapons. It’s a number of stocks.
Nuclear weapons and their striking factors