Allied landings in normandy, operation «Overlord», «D day» (eng. «D-day»), Norman operation. This event has many different names. This is a battle during the war. This is an event that has a history forever.
Operation «Overlord» — It was a military operation. Held in Normandy, France. This is the largest amphibious operation in history. — in total, more than 3 million people were involved. Operation has begun June 6, 1944 August 31, 1944 with the German occupiers. This is a combined process of international cooperation.
Goals of the warring parties
For the Anglo-American troops «Overlord» It was scored. It was a very difficult task.
Forces of the parties before the battle
It was not worth it in 1944, especially if it was the western army. Hitler concentrated on the eastern part, where Soviet troops won one after another. German troops were deprived of unified leadership in france — It’s not a bad idea.
By June 6, 1944, 58 fascist German divisions were stationed in France, Belgium and the Netherlands, including 42 infantry, 9 tank and 4 airfield. They combined into two army groups, «B» and «R»and were subject to command «West». Army group «B» (Commander Field Marshal E. Rommel), located in France, Belgium and the Netherlands, included the 7th, 15th army and the 88th separate army corps — only 38 divisions. Army group «R» (Commander General I. Blaskowitz) was located on the coast of Biscay and in southern France.
In addition to the troops, “West”. Thus, the coastline of the Pas-de-Calais. In general, the German units were scattered on the battlefield. For example, the Reich soldiers were in France.
Despite their relatively low number of German soldiers and equipment stationed in the area, their combat capability was extremely low. 33 divisions were considered «stationary»it is not necessary for all vehicles. About 20 divisions were newly formed or rebuilt after the fighting, so they were staffed only by 70-75% of the norm. Many tank divisions also lacked fuel.
From the memories «West» General Westphal: «It was much lower than that of the divisions operating in the East.… A so-called significant number of ground forces in France “stationary divisions”, were very poorly equipped». The German air fleet could provide about 160 combat-capable aircraft. Hitler’s troops had 49 submarines, 116 patrol ships, 34 torpedo boats and 42 artillery barges at their disposal.
US President Dwight Eisenhower, had 39 divisions and 12 brigades at their disposal. In this aspect, allies had an overwhelming advantage. They had about 11 thousand combat aircraft, 2300 transport aircraft; over 6 thousand combat, landing and transport ships. It was 2.1 times for men, and for tanks — 2.2 times by plane — almost 23 times. In addition, there were 3 million people at their disposal. Germany, however, could not boast of such reserves.
American command began to prepare for landing in France long before «D day» (the initial disembarkation project was considered 3 years before — in 1941 — and had a code name «Roundup»). The United States forces the United States. «Torch»), and then in Italy. It couldn’t be accepted. — European or Pacific. It was a peace in the pacific. operations «Overlord».
The operation of the first two phases «Neptune»second — «Cobra». «Neptune» the seizure of coastal territory, «Cobra» — France fenders followed by the french border. June 6, 1944 to July 1, 1944; Beginning of the same year.
It was not a long time ago.
In addition to the troops, the Canadian, Australian and New Zealand troops were active in France. It has been shown for all operations. Normandy, Brittany and Pas-de-Calais.
Everyone knows that the choice was on Normandy. It was influenced by such factors as the United Kingdom airways. The combination of these factors is determined by the choice of command allies.
Passo-Calais ,, and new soldiers. The famous Pas de Calais was created. «Atlantic Shaft» — Forces of the fascists were hardly half ready. The landing took place on five beaches, which were code-named. «Utah», «Omaha», «Gold», «Sord», «Juno».
The tide of the tide has been reached. It’s possible that these factors could not be taken. June 6th, this day was called «D day». It has been noted that it has been renegotiated. ships.
Course of operation
Such a plan was developed at headquarters. In fact, everything went wrong. The landing force was scattered over a vast territory. — over 216 square meters. km for 25-30 km. from capture objects. Most of the 101st divisions, which landed near Saint-Mayor Eglise, disappeared without a trace. The 6th English division was not unplugged: although he didn’t find out. The 1st Division of the US troops was almost completely destroyed. They reached the coast.
Already during the second part of the operation — operation «Cobra» — Allied aviation struck at its command post. The offensive went much slower than planned. The most bloody event «Omaha». According to the planes, they were significantly damaged.
But on «Omaha» Of the first day of surgery «Omaha» America lost «Utah» This is where the landing force is lost. Allied troops was quite successful.
Then the second phase was successfully started. operations «Overlord», such as Cherbourg, Saint-Lo, Caen and others. The Germans retreated, throwing weapons, equipment to the Americans. On August 15, the German tanker got into the train, although they were able to get there, operation «Overlord» was declared complete.
The allied forces
The Germans have already been named above. This was the situation of Germany. It was the goal of the Red Army. It was not until 1944 (Ardennes offensive), but then it was already too late.
It was not a long time ago. In addition, all ports are reinforced by British ports.
This was an important factor in the French partisans, which was rather badly spoiled. In addition, it was a numerical superiority. It has been decided for allies.
It was shown that he hadn’t been able to follow the rules of the war. «D day» He has been forced to fight for two fronts, which has been stretched. The soldiers showed themselves. Wehrmacht lost all positions in Western Europe.
Representation of the battle
It is a bloodshed (especially on the beach «Omaha») led to the fact that there are many computer games, films on this subject. Perhaps the most famous movie director of Steven Spielberg. «Rescue private ryan»on the massacre «Omaha». Also, this topic was addressed in «The longest day»television series «Brothers in arms» and many documentaries. Operation «Overlord» figured in more than 50 different computer games.
Even though operation «Overlord» It was carried out more than 50 years ago. And probably understand why.
Operation «Overlord». Landing in the Western Front