Orientation features when driving at night, selection of landmarks, study of the route, features of combat support during the offensive at night.

At night, it is relatively easy to maintain the required direction when driving on highways and improved dirt roads. On country roads with a casing, with a communication line, as well as along the power line, landing strip and other linear landmarks, clearly visible in the dark. 

Orienteering features when driving at night, selection of landmarks, study of the route, features of ensuring combat during the offensive.

The route on the map should be raised as bright as possible so that it can be seen even in low light. As landmarks, it is advisable to choose local objects located in the immediate vicinity of the road and clearly visible at night. On off-road and dirt roads, along which there are no linear landmarks that are clearly visible at night, you need to determine the azimuths and sign them on a map.

Orientation features when driving at night, selection of landmarks, study of the route, features of combat support during the offensive at night.

In preparation for night orientation, you must carefully study the route. To know from memory its mark, the nature of roads in sections, reference points. Especially at the main corners and in places where the route passes from one class of road to another. For self-control of remembering the route, it is recommended to draw on a blank sheet of paper a local area diagram along the route from memory.

In the car, the card illumination should be equipped so that the rays of the light bulb do not fall directly into the eyes. Actions along the route while maintaining the route at night are similar to actions during daylight hours. Given limited visibility at night, the driver and other crew members should be involved in monitoring the landmarks..

On the way, you need to access the map as rarely as possible, since when transferring eyes from the map of the surroundings, it takes some time to adapt the eyes to the dark. When driving on dirt roads that are poorly visible on the ground, azimuth control should be carried out.

Features of ensuring combat during the offensive at night.

In preparation for the march and the conduct of battle at night, it is necessary to equip tanks, cars and other military equipment with signs visible in the dark. The direction of advance at night is chosen with as few natural obstacles as possible. And landmarks that are clearly visible at night.

To ensure the offensive in the indicated directions, the battalions designate guiding units that maintain a given direction. To orient units in battle, special lighting shells, mines and aerial bombs are widely used. With their help, it is possible to indicate the direction of the units by lighting landmarks in the enemy’s location. In addition, torches on the ground are used..

In favorable weather, the course of action can be indicated by the alignment of torches of luminous bombs, shells or mines on the ground or in the air. To mark the alignment, 2-3 torches are usually used at a distance of at least 500 meters from each other.

Directions of action can also be indicated by firing tracer shells, the periodic inclusion of spotlights. In some cases, and the creation of fires. The divisions widely use lighting and signal cartridges to illuminate the area and indicate directions.

Based on materials from the Handbook of Military Topography.
A. M. Govorukhin, A. M. Kuprin, A. N. Kovalenko, M. V. Gamezo.

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