Orientation of the map is giving it by turning in the horizontal plane such a position that the north side of the frame will face in the north, and the lines and directions on the map are parallel to the corresponding lines and directions on the ground. The orientation of the map itself is made by compass, terrain line or direction to the landmark.
Orientation of the map by compass, along the terrain, in the direction of the landmark, ways of identifying landmarks.
Compass orienteering is mainly used in terrain difficult to navigate. For example, in a forest, desert, etc. In these conditions, the direction to the north is first determined by a compass. And then the card is rotated by the top side of the frame in this direction.
The compass map can be oriented more accurately taking into account magnetic declination. In this case, a compass with an open magnetic arrow is mounted on one of the vertical lines of the coordinate grid of the map. Moreover, so that the line passing through the strokes of 0 and 180 degrees of the scale (or the corresponding AK compass) coincides with the line of the map.
Then the card is rotated so that the northern end of the magnetic needle deviates from the 0 degree line by the amount of the direction correction. It is usually indicated in the lower left corner of this map sheet..
Compass Orientation Example.
Orientation of the map.
The map is rotated so that the line of the symbol of the local object, for example, the road, coincides with the direction of the local object itself. And the images of all objects located to the right and to the left of it were on the same sides as on the ground.
An example of orienting a map along a terrain line.
Orienting a map in a direction to a landmark.
Orientation of the map in the direction of the landmark is used in the case when the standing point is known and the landmark indicated on the map is visible from it. The map is rotated so that the direction of the standing point-landmark coincides with the corresponding direction on the ground. For a more accurate orientation of the map, a ruler is applied to these points and on it they are endorsed for a landmark.
This is the most crucial stage of map orientation. Since the standing point can only be determined by landmarks common to the map and terrain. Landmark identification begins with the largest, most prominent terrain objects. And those that are relatively rare in this area. When searching for objects observed on the map on the map, their relative position and the position of the relative lateral horizon are taken into account.
The accuracy of the identification of landmarks is checked by the surrounding elements of the area. In those cases where it is not possible to identify landmarks common to the map and the area, you should move so that the visibility of other landmarks is opened. And then try to identify these landmarks on the map.
Based on materials from the Handbook of Military Topography.
A. M. Govorukhin, A. M. Kuprin, A. N. Kovalenko, M. V. Gamezo.