# Orientation to the terrain and determination of the sides of the horizon by the Sun, by shadow, by the clock, by the Polar Star, by the Moon, by the movement of celestial bodies in the sky.

The sun rises in the east and moves, through the south, to the west. But, only on March 21 and September 23, in the days of the spring and autumn equinox, when day is equal to night, the sun rises exactly in the east. The rest of the year, you can orient yourself on the ground and determine the exact north-south direction by the Sun only at noon in the shadow of vertical objects, since at noon the Sun is at the southern horizon.

## Orientation to the terrain and determination of the sides of the horizon by the Sun, by shadow, by the clock, by the Polar Star, by the Moon, by the movement of celestial bodies in the sky.

In our latitudes, according to maternity time, the Sun is:

In the summer at 8-9 hours and in the winter at 7-8 hours – in the east.
In the summer at 14 hours and in the winter at 13 hours – in the south.
In the summer at 19-20 hours and in the winter at 18-19 hours – in the west.

## Orienteering and determining the sides of the horizon by shadow.

Drive a stick 1-1.5 meters long into the ground on an even area at an angle of 45-50 degrees. In winter, when the shadows are longer, the stick must be installed with a large slope. Tie a rope to the top of the stick. Tie a load to the lower end of the rope. Underneath this vertical plumb line, score a peg. To this peg, tie a rope with a pointed peg at the end (rope compass).

30-60 minutes before noon, mark the end of the shadow (B) cast by a stick on the ground. Then, with a rope compass, draw an arc. In the afternoon, where the shadow from the stick touches the arc, mark point B. Divide the obtained part of the arc between points B-B in half and get point G. From the peg (point A), draw a straight line through point G on the arc – this will be the direction to North.

## Orienteering and determining the sides of the horizon by the sun and clock with arrows.

The clock must be installed in a horizontal position so that the hour hand is directed towards the Sun. The angle between the clockwise and the “1” direction on the watch dial is divided in half by a straight line that indicates the direction to the south. Before noon, you must halve the angle (arc) that the arrow must go before 13.00, and after noon – the angle (arc) that it passed after 13.00.

## Orienteering and determining the sides of the horizon by the Polar Star.

The North Star is always in the North. It can be found at night on a cloudless sky by the two extreme stars of the Ursa Major, this is the constellation of the northern hemisphere of the sky. Seven stars of Ursa Major make a figure resembling a bucket with a handle. To determine the North Star, you need to mentally draw a “straight up” straight line through the two extreme stars of the Ursa Major (the outer side of the bucket) and set aside five segments equal to the segment between these stars.

The extreme point of the fifth segment is the North Star, which is located in the constellation Ursa Minor – the extreme star in the handle of a small bucket. Ursa Minor is the North Pole of the world. The accuracy of determining the direction to the North by the Polar Star is 2-3 degrees.

## Orienteering and determining the sides of the horizon on the moon.

The moon on its way around the earth is illuminated by the sun. The moon itself does not shine. The moon goes through the phases of illumination: the new moon is the state when the moon is not visible (state 1), neo-mania is the first appearance of the moon in the sky after the new moon in the form of a narrow sickle (state 2), the first quarter is the state when half the moon is lit (state 3), the full moon is the state when the whole moon is lit up (state 5), the last quarter is the state when half the moon is lit again (state 7).

## The successive change in the states of the visible moon in the sky.

To distinguish the first quarter from the last, you must remember the following rule: if the lunar crescent in the sky is similar to the letter “C”, then this is the moon “Aging”, that is, this is the last quarter. If the lunar sickle is turned in the opposite direction, then we must mentally “put” a line to it and we get the letter “P” – the moon “Growing”, that is, this is the first quarter. A growing month is usually observed in the evening. Aging in the morning. The moon makes it possible to most accurately determine the sides of the horizon in the full moon.

## At full moon, the moon is:

At 19.00 – in the east.
At 1.00 – in the south.
At 7.00 – in the west.

## The first quarter shows the right half of the disk of the moon. The moon is located:

At 19.00- in the south.
At 1.00 – in the west.
At 7.00 not visible.

## The last quarter is visible to the left half of the disk. The moon is located:

At 19.00 not visible.
At 1.00 – in the east.
At 7.00 – in the south.

## Orientation based on the movement of celestial bodies in the sky.

Two long sticks must be driven into the ground at a certain distance from each other, at eye level. The line of sight to combine the two upper ends of the sticks with any, clearly distinguishable star. Wait and detect in which direction from the line of sight this star is shifting. To the right means you are looking south. To the left – you are looking north. Up – to the east. The star goes down – you look to the west. This method is very approximate. The Milky Way, a dense strip of small stars crossing the sky in a wide strip, is located approximately on the line “north – south”.

Based on the book “Survival beyond the threshold of civilization”.
Nagorsky S.V..