Orienteering, nature and methods, topographic and tactical orientation.

Orienteering includes determining your location relative to the sides of the horizon and distinguished terrain objects (landmarks), maintaining a given or selected direction of movement, and clarifying the position on the terrain of landmarks, lines, your troops, enemy troops, engineering structures and other objects. 

Orienteering, nature and methods, topographic and tactical orientation.

Depending on the nature of the task to be performed, orientation on the ground can be done locally from individual points (for example, from observation points during reconnaissance) or in motion (on the march, on the offensive, etc.). In both cases, the main way is to orient the topographic map using a compass.

– this is the movement in azimuths prepared in advance on the map. In some cases, orientation (determining the direction of movement) can be done without a map (for compass, gyrocircuit, landmarks, celestial bodies, signs of local objects). When orienting on the ground during reconnaissance, first topographic and then tactical orientation on the ground is performed.

Topographic Orientation.

Topographic orientation on the ground includes:

Definition of the parties of the horizon.
Points of standing.
Positions of surrounding objects.

In topographic orientation, first they show the direction of the north in any subject and their location relative to the nearest and clearly distinguished landmark. Then they call the necessary landmarks and other terrain objects, indicate directions to them and approximate distances.

Directions to landmarks are relative to their position (right, right, left) or along the sides of the horizon. Orientation order: from right to left, starting from the right flank.

Topographic orientation report example:

“The direction to the north is the mound. We are located on the northern outskirts of Timonovka; on the right, 5 km – Semenovka; directly, 4 km – the grove “Dark”; further, 10 km – the village of Ivanovka; to the left, 2 km – height 125.6 “.

Tactical Orienteering.

Tactical orientation on the ground consists in determining and showing on the ground the location and nature of the actions of the enemy troops and their units by a certain time.

Based on materials from the Handbook of Military Topography.
A. M. Govorukhin, A. M. Kuprin, A. N. Kovalenko, M. V. Gamezo.

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