Protection against infectious diseases

Protection against infectious diseases

Table of contents:

Infections affecting skin lesions

  • Aids
  • Rabies
  • Herpes

Complex infections

  • Plague
  • anthrax
  • Tuberculosis
  • Tularemia

Sexually transmitted diseases

  • Gonorrhea
  • Syphilis
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Chlamydia
  • Sexual contact

Infectious skin lesions

  • Skin fungi
  • Furunculosis
  • Carbunculosis

Other diseases

  • Allergy
  • Encephalitis
  • Appendicitis

Protection against diseases, part 2

Infections affecting skin lesions

Aids

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which has been found in blood, saliva, tears, breast milk, urine, and even sweat. It is unlikely (but still, it is a bad habit, it is a bad habit). Ways of transmitting AIDS:

  • Sexual intercourse;
  • Non-sterile medical instruments;
  • Blood and some medical preparations from the blood;
  • Pregnancy, childbirth (transmission of the virus to the child);
  • Transplantation of the organs and tissues;
  • Foreign blood on the skin or mucous membrane;
  • Restoration of the mouth to mouth;
  • Contact with the discharge of the patient.

A person who is not a homosexual, a drug addict or a prostitute will be infected with AIDS. They are still sometimes break.

Under the action of solvents fats (alcohol, soap, detergents) the virus dies within 10 minutes. At +37 wC, 90% of viruses die in 5 days, at 60 wC – in 24 seconds. It is recommended that it be used at least 30 minutes. It is a 3% solution of chloramine or boil for 20 minutes. It doesn’t protect against AIDS. The best protection against infection during intercourse is a condom.

Experts say in the following ways:

  • Through the bites of blood-sucking insects;
  • Airborne droplets (for example, when sneezing);
  • Upon contact with a tear;
  • Through food and water;
  • Through things.

The incubation of several years of several years. Optional signs of AIDS:

  • Swollen lymph nodes;
  • Excessive sweating;
  • Weakness;
  • Memory impairment;
  • Weight loss;
  • Malignant lesions on the skin;
  • Fever and temperature;
  • Damage to the tissues in the mouth;
  • Pneumonia.

A few minutes after infection. Then comes a long hidden period. 9/10 HIV carriers are not aware of this. Within 10 years after the manifestation of AIDS, 50% of patients die.

Rabies

Infection: from dogs, cats, foxes, wolves, raccoon dogs, bats – through a bite or saliva from a wound. According to some information, it is possible to take protective measures. You can also become infected. Dogs (in cities) and Foxes (in rural areas). Signs of a sick animal: aggressiveness and excessive salivation, later – depression and pharyngeal paralysis. An animal becomes contagious even before it develops symptoms of the disease. It is necessary to suspect that he has rabies. In humans, the incubation period lasts from 10 days to 12 months. The first manifestation: hydrophobia. Disease duration: 3 – 7 days. The outcome is fatal.

Course of the disease:

  • Inflammation of the bite site, insomnia, anxiety, depression;
  • On the 2nd – hallucinations, tumult;
  • On the 3rd – paralysis, respiratory arrest.

Prevention: vaccination after a bite. Shallow wounds can be cauterized. According to some reports, only about 30% of people are susceptible to rabies. Thus, vaccination can be a significant likelihood of infection. A veterinarian. Find yourself bitten.

Herpes

Herpes is the most common viral disease. Harmful because it lowers immunity. It is especially dangerous for pregnant women in newborns. Most often, it can cause a great inconvenience. Genital herpes affects the genitals. It may not be significant at all. It is enough to get rid of it. Iodine causes a slight chemical burn to the mucous membrane. It is caused, for example, hypothermia or overheating.

Complex infections

Plague

Causative agent: bacterium. Penetrates into the body, respiratory tract, mucous membranes. It is transferred by rodents (mainly marmots, gophers, rats). During the epizootic period, you can get infected with a hedgehog, a fox, a domestic cat, a camel. Apparently, there is a chance of infection when a rodent is digging out a hole. Signs: fever, insomnia, agitation, delirium, white plaque around the tongue. The disease occurs in three forms:

  1. Bubonic (Bubo – purulent inflammation of the lymph node);
  2. Pulmonary (additional signs: chills, lower back pain, stitching pains in the chest, cough with sputum, sometimes vomiting);
  3. Septic (general infection of the body).

His sputum contains a large number of bacteria. Urine of the patient. It is therefore not a threat to make it true. The incubation period: from 1 to 9 days, usually 3. Prevention: avoid rodents; wear short hair; in field conditions shake out clothes, a tent, a sleeping bag; do not go to someone else’s dirty bed; shy away from close contact with uncultured people. Vaccination against plague lasts 6 to 12 months and becomes effective one week after. Prevention: Disinsection Treatment of Their Holes.

anthrax

Anthrax people, livestock, cats, rodents are ill. Pathogen: spore-forming bacteria. The spore form has exceptional stability. During the boiling for more than 5 days. It has been noted that people can kill for centuries. Infection: Sheepkin, Wool, Wool, Bones, etc. It can be used to protect skin and mucous membrane. blood-sicking insects. Incubation period: from several hours to 8 days.

Course of the disease:

  • In the case of a pathogen it appears. the latter is the sensitivity of the body;
  • In the pulmonary form of acute pneumonia, leading to death on the second or third day.

Prevention: Compulsory vaccination of people. Emergency prophylaxis: administration of anthrax globulin in combination with penicillin.

Tuberculosis

The usual incidence of tuberculosis is 10–100 people per 100,000 inhabitants (depending on the country, social group, etc.). Mortality is 2–40 people per 100,000. With good care, 90% of patients can be cured. Pathogen: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Koch sticks). There are three main types of mycobacteria: human, bull, bird. Up to 15% of human diseases are caused by bovine and avian tuberculosis.

Infection:

  • Airborne droplets – when staying close to the coughing patient;
  • Through dishes – for example, through a badly washed glass in a cafeteria;
  • Through food; through skin damage.

Symptoms of the first stage of the disease:

  • General weakness, sweating (sweat has a smell like that of hay),
  • Dry cough (profuse sputum appears in the future, hemoptysis – only with a long-gone disease).

It is also possible to make it a little hair, a wheezing on the face, a swelling of the lymph nodes (more often – on the neck). You can become infected with animals, birds through milk, eggs, meat. At a temperature of +95 ° C, mycobacteria survive in milk for 5 minutes. In dried sputum, they die when heated to +100 ° C after 45 minutes. Dried up sputum in a dark place, up to 12 months, up to 3 months, up to 2 months, up to 1.5 months a day sunlight up to 4 hours, in sewage up to 1 month. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a 5% solution of chloramine stand up to 6 hours. Thereafter, there was a careful disinfection.

The main distribution factor is that of their saliva, sweat, feces. In 95% of the cases, the infection occurs in airborne droplets, in crowded places (queues, public transport). Drops of tuberculous sputum In the presence of rhinitis, angina, bronchitis, the possibility of infection with tuberculosis increases. Other ways of infection: through food, dishes, clothing, handshake, etc. Hands, face, clothes, necklace and hair are always covered. Tuberculosis is also infected by animals and birds. Through raw milk and dairy products, pathogen can be infected. Forms of tuberculosis are divided into open and closed. Closed forms are also contagious, but many times smaller than open ones. A spreader of mycobacteria. The pattern of mycobacteria depends on the body of the body. Tuberculosis affects a weakened body. This disease is not transmitted. It can be a colony of mycobacteria. Most often, tuberculosis affects the lungs (85% of cases). 30% of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis are especially dangerous carriers of infection. System, skin, eyes are affected. Infection of the population of tuberculosis increases with age. Tuberculosis often suffer in wet and cold climates. The disease usually develops with poor nutrition, especially with a lack of food in animal protein. Inhalation of dust, smoking, and smoking. Men get sick 2 – 3 times more often than women. A method for detecting X-ray lung radiography. It is recommended at least once a year.

The case of mycobacteria. The first vaccine against tuberculosis (BCG vaccine) is given to a newborn. Immunity in most children lasts 4–7 years. In children, the infection has been checked by the Pirquet and Mantoux tests. It is detected by fluorography. Prophylactic medication for tuberculosis (isoniazid, etc.) is recommended only when in contact with patients.

Tuberculosis is among the most complex and dangerous diseases of mankind. Overcrowding, a large number of vagrants, a large number of vagrants, phthisiology. The so-called recovered often remain crippled. The marrow tuberculosis. Infection with tuberculosis. May not work against it.

Tularemia

Symptoms: fever, headache, muscle pain, vomiting, inflammation of the lymph nodes, rash. Additionally, pneumonia, tonsillitis or abdominal pain (depending on the route of infection) occurs. The causative agent – tularemia wand. In water at a temperature of +20 ° C, the temperature lasts up to 60 days. Resistant to drying. Dies quickly under the action of disinfectants. Source of infection: rodents (hares, mice, rats, muskrats, hamsters, etc.). Infection: through the skin, the mucous membrane, the intestines. Through the blood sucking insects of Tularemia outbreaks are known among warring comfrey soldiers. The reason is the reproduction of the rodents in dugouts and pillboxes. Incubation period: from several hours to several weeks. Prevention: vaccination. It is an epizootic case (spread of disease among animals).

Sexually transmitted diseases

“With whom you will be gathering”

There are 22 known types of sexually infections. This condition is more common, ureaplasmosis, candidiasis, candidiasis, spread of gonorrhea. Their consequences can be significant: for example, impotence, infertility. At the same time. In addition to the sexually transmitted diseases, hepatitis, herpes, lice, AIDS, etc. are spread through sexual intercourse. The most dangerous sexually transmitted infections are discussed next.

Gonorrhea

Pathogen: gonococcus bacterium. Infection occurs during sexual intercourse, through dirty hands, through common things (bed, towel, sponge, toilet). Immunity is not developed. In men, the incubation period is 3–4 days, sometimes one day, sometimes three weeks or more. The term may be extended due to the intake of antibiotics. Signs: Inflammation of the urethra, pus flowing, sharp pain when urinating. In women, the disease develops unnoticed, without pain. There may be white discharge. Urinary and reproductive systems are affected. With a delayed treatment form. Infertility may occur. The patient dies. Treatment: intensive penicillin injections. There are no interruptions in the use of alcohol. It should be taken for a period of 6 months. Self-medication (flush the urethra with a solution of potassium permanganate).

Syphilis

Pathogen: bacterium pale treponema (spirochete). Infection: during sexual intercourse, kissing, through a spoon, glass, lipstick, etc. Incubation period: from 10 days to 3 months, usually a month. Flow:

  • At the 1st stage, a “hard chancre” (one or more) appears – an ulcer, usually at the site;
  • There is an increase in lymph nodes; skin rash within 1 to 2 months; then comes the hidden period, which lasts from several months to several years;
  • Stage 3 occurs in 3-4 years and there is a damage to the spinal cord and brain.

Self-medication is ineffective. If the disease doesn’t start, it can be cured. Protection: At-spirochete water; when boiling dies instantly. A solution of potassium permanganate does not affect it.

Trichomoniasis

According to some trichomoniasis, 10% of humanity suffers. Pathogen: flagellated Trichomonas microorganism. Infection: almost exclusively through sexual contact; A gynecologist was examined for a case of transmission through a linen, washcloth, contaminated instrument. This is a result of so-called oral inflammation of the gums. Incubation period: 7 – 14 days or more. Symptoms – like with gonorrhea, but less pronounced. May not attract attention at all. It is a disease when urinating. In women, there is an abundant liquid discharge, itching, burning. If untreated. Treatment and prevention of gonorrhea. Trichomonas, among other things, is considered a carcinogenic factor.

Chlamydia

Pathogen: unicellular alga Chlamydia. Three weeks after infection, inflammation of the urethra develops. In women, the disease proceeds without noticeable symptoms.

Sexual contact

If you haven’t been able to follow the precautions are recommended. Always keep it preserved). Do not even want to complain about it. Condom to a woman. It’s not necessary, however, that you’ll be able to. In the future, temporarily refrain from sex – to clarify the situation. If there is a contagious contact. Take care of your intercourse. It can be seen that a woman’s contraction of the vaginal muscles can occur. If you have a bad relationship with a woman, you can get it.

Infectious skin lesions

Skin fungi

The most common skin lesion caused by fungi is epidermal. Usually happens on the feet, less often on the palms. Some types of fungi affect the nails. About one in five people suffer from skin and nail fungi. The time of treatment lasts from 2 weeks to 1.5 years. Infections can be cured easily. Nails can remain disfigured forever. Feet and feet are predisposed to the disease. The development of fungi contribute to heat, humidity, cramped and poorly ventilated shoes. Infection can occur when visiting a swimming pool, bath, shower, while using someone else’s shoes, etc. Fungi usually begin to multiply between the third and fourth toes. It is clear that there is a clear border; when the skin is moistened, large pores become visible. Affected skin produces a strong unpleasant odor. When walking for a long time, scuffing occurs. Keep feet dry to prevent infection. Wash them thoroughly, especially the space between your fingers. To wear your feet from sweating. If your feet are sweating too much, you should loosen your feet with zinc ointment. If you work in a warm room, get a replacement for lightweight shoes. If you have feet or feet in the rain. When you go on a trip, bring a pair of spare socks. Do not use someone else’s shoes. Get rid of fungi with zinc ointment or other fungicidal agents (nitrofungin, clotrimazole, lamisil, etc.). If you cant get a fungicide, you can definitely get some cement for the occasion. The skin of the skin of the skin. Fungi, it is not fungicide.

Other types of fungal diseases:

Microsphere. Skin and hair are affected. The skin is inflamed and flaky. Hair breaks off at a distance of 5 – 8 mm from the roots. Children are ill mainly. The source of infection is animals (cats, dogs, etc.). The incubation period is from 5 days to 6 weeks. Treatment – with lotions from a 20% aqueous solution of boric acid. 5% alcohol iodine solution is required. Treatment lasts 4 to 6 weeks.

CANDIDIASIS. The skin of the axillary membrane is the mucous membrane. Puffiness and small ulcers appear on the skin. The mucous membrane becomes inflamed and a whitish coating forms on it. The disease may occur after long-term treatment with antibiotics or immunosuppressants. It can be passed sexually. The treatment consists of a 5% sodium bicarbonate (soda) solution.

Furunculosis

Furunculosis – multiple skin lesions with boils. Boil (abscess) – purulent inflammation of the hair bag, caused by the introduction of staphylococci. Contamination contribute to contamination and microtrauma of the skin, depletion of the body. Most often, prints to pollution and / or friction boils. First, there is a slight itching, burning sensation, if possible. After 1-2 days, pus accumulates under the skin. It takes about 7 days. Furunculosis can blood poisoning – especially if the face is boiled. With the location of the furuncles near the large veins, it is also likely thrombosis (clogging) of the latter. In both cases, death is possible. Thrombosis and sepsis often occur. The treatment consists of a green paint, and alcohol. It is necessary to protect the furuncle from damage. This is done by fixing a pad on it. It is strictly not recommended for skin care. It has been shown that it has been shown that it has been completely refreshed.

Carbunculosis

Carbuncle is a purity hair bags and sebaceous glands of the skin. Of the boil. Hospitalization is required in a purulent surgical department. If non-surgical treatment for 2-3 days is unsuccessful, apply a cross-section with the removal of dead tissue. In emaciated patients, the carbuncle can be fatal.

Other diseases

Allergy

Allergy – for hypersensitivity of it. Types of allergic reactions:

  • Runny nose
  • Conjunctivitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes)
  • Asthma (wheezing in the lungs)
  • Headache
  • Rash
  • Eczema (inflammation of the skin)
  • Diarrhea

The allergic reaction is anaphylactic shock. He often ends in death. Anaphylactic shock can be caused by the use of allergenic foods, allergenic drugs, insect bites (bees, wasps, bumblebees, etc.), hypothermia (with cold allergies). Sustained allergic reactions underlie asthma, eczema, hay fever, etc. Rheumatism is partly an allergic disease.

An allergic reaction sometimes occurs when there is an allergy reaction, then it becomes a condition.

The most common allergens (% of cases):

  • Mold fungi – 30%
  • Food additives – 21%
  • House tongs – 20%
  • Plant pollen – 16%
  • Food – 14%
  • Medicines – 12%
  • Pets – 8%

Mold spores cause an allergic reaction in the airways. Fungi multiply in damp rooms (in the bathroom, etc.), in food, in hay, in fallen leaves. Food additives that can cause allergies – a variety of flavoring, coloring, preservative substances. If you have allergies, you can get a combination of microscopic (less than 1 mm) ticks that cause allergies, asthma, conjunctivitis, dermatitis. It is in bedding. Allergies can also be caused by pillows, etc.

The most allergenic pollen is in birch, alder, pine, poplar, and cereals. Especially high concentration of pollen in the air – usually in the mornings, in sunny weather. Food allergens most often are chicken eggs, milk, nuts, fish, caviar, citrus, honey, coffee, cocoa, chocolate. Medicinal substances allergens can be antibiotics, painkillers, etc. If antibiotics are used to treat farm animals, then they get into milk, meat, eggs. The antibiotic contained in it. It has been noted. For the first time, it’s not a pill, not a pill. If you have an allergic reaction. There is a chance that there will be skin particles, particles, saliva, urine.

It can be a period of time.

Prevention of allergies should be taken before the birth of the child. During pregnancy, women should avoid allergens. It can cause an allergic reaction. If you are pregnant, you can take more than that. For a long time, get rid of it. It can be injected, ingested as a pill, instilled into the eyes. Some deaths in infants are caused by a severe allergic reaction to cow’s milk.

It is a kind of allergic reaction to other factors. Vaccinations are dangerous for allergy sufferers. They should be done only after the test for portability. If there is no large redness, then it will be taken. If there is an allergic reaction to any animal, then there is an allergic reaction.

Allergy Treatment:

  • Allergen elimination;
  • Counteracting manifestations of the disease (symptomatic treatment);
  • Decrease in body sensitivity to allergen (desensitization).

Antihistamines are used for desensitization: diphenhydramine, suprastin, tavegil, etc. (Histamine reaction).

Anaphylactic shock immediately after allergic reactions. Additional signs: weakness, pallor, nausea, tinnitus, cough, pain and abdomen. Loss of consciousness occurs in a few minutes or even seconds. It happens that the patient doesn’t have time to complain. In outpatient clinics in patients of anaphylactic shock in patients there is an “antishock set” of drugs. Anaphylactic shock remedies:

  • Artificial respiration, oxygen;
  • Putting on the allergen (bite, injection);
  • Excision or cutting of tissue;
  • Overlaying the harness on the limb through which the allergen entered;
  • Warming the patient;
  • He doesn’t choke on vomiting;
  • Fixing it in the throat;
  • Injection of cardiac, antihistamine and other means.

Encephalitis

Encephalitis is an inflammatory disease of the brain. The reasons may be different: viruses, microbes, fungi, worms. The possible symptoms are: drowsiness, agitation, hallucinations, dizziness, vomiting, etc. Treatment is only symptomatic (that is, alleviation of the disease).

Tick-borne encephalitis caused by a virus. Infection with goats. The incubation period lasts an average of 10..15 days. The course of the disease varies from mild (without clear symptoms) to severe (with paralysis) and death. Mortality rate – from 1 to 10%. There is a very effective vaccine. Persons bitten ticks are advised to inject anti-encephalitic gamma globulin.

Appendicitis

Appendicitis – inflammation of the appendix (appendix of the large intestine). It is deadly. For abdominal pain, appendicitis should be suspected first. Other possible causes of such paints are blessings, cholecystitis, intestinal obstruction, perforated gastric ulcer. Due to the similarity of the symptoms, it is possible to lead to unnecessary surgery. According to some reports, it is caused by worms, unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle. Classical appendicitis is pain in the lower right abdomen. But it also happens to be differently. Abdominal pain, abdominal pain, does not necessarily require surgery. There is a chronic appendicitis: episodic repetitive lung ailments.

If it is not possible to get medical help, you should try to get it down, for example, a cup of snow. The pain can pass overnight or over several days. A sign of improvement in body temperature. A sign of a successful completion of the attack. If it comes to surgeons, refrigerators, snow.

Alexander Buryak, editors – LastDay.Club
from the book “The Art of Survival”

The art of survival. Chapter 5.2.4: Protection against Infectious Diseases

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