Protection against injury

Table of contents:

Injury protection
Injury prevention
First aid to the victim

  • General rules
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Respiratory arrest
  • Blood loss
  • Stretching and tearing
  • Spinal injuries
  • Airway blockage
  • Chemical burn
  • Frostbite
  • Eye damage
  • Victim transportation
  • Anaerobic infection
  • Felon
  • Cooking
  • Shock
  • Heart failure
  • Dislocations and fractures
  • Damage to the skull
  • Bruises
  • Heat burn
  • Electric shock
  • Drowning
  • Nosebleed
  • Wound healing
  • Tetanus
  • Putrid infection

Injury protection

Injury prevention

Clothes made of dense material: denim, leather. Trousers are better than shorts. Long sleeves are better than short sleeves. Sweating is not bad. If possible, protect hands with gloves, head with a hat, etc. Boots are preferable to shoes, boots are preferable to boots.

It can fall on you. Do not put anything too heavy on them. Do not clutter up the floor – so that inadvertently about something not to stumble. Do not sit under the shelves. If you lose your balance and where you fall. There can be overgrown areas while sitting on the table. If you find yourself a splash, you can’t get to your injury

It is necessary to get in. It is not clear that the situation has been reduced. In the fight, you’re closer to you. It greatly increases the chance of avoiding injuries during the day. Warming up, ankle joints, jumping, pushing up from the floor, dodging blows.

First aid to the victim

If you are looking for something to do.

General rules

Then drink much of water. The victim may have a heart attack. You should give him some kind of “heart” and some kind of anesthetic. For large skin lesions, an antibiotic is required. It is usually as follows:

  1. Pain shock;
  2. Exsanguination;
  3. Infection (tetanus, etc.).

Cooking

In the first aid kit should be:

  • Cardiac: Validol, Valocordin, Corvalol;
  • Painkillers: procaine, no-spa;
  • Disinfectants: iodine, “brilliant green”, potassium permanganate;
  • Antibiotic: streptomycin;
  • Dressings: bandage, cotton wool.

It can be used. Your pocket should always have a clean handkerchief.

Loss of consciousness

If you’re dying of your own tongue or vomit. To take the tongue from the pharynx, it is necessary to tilt the victim’s head back. The mouth and throat are cleaned with a handkerchief. It is necessary to improve the flow of blood to the head. It is not clear that there is a problem in the respiratory tract.

Fainting – to a brain. Possible causes: physical and mental overload, blood loss, overheating, hunger, strong experiences. Someone else’s blood. The victim must be laid.

Shock

It occurs with severe injuries. The following stages of shock are distinguished:

  • 1st (5..10 minutes): excitement, feeling of severe pain;
  • 2nd, the body is cold, the pulse is weak, deep apathy.

Help with shock:

  • Apply an anesthetic (if any) or give alcohol to drink;
  • Lift the legs (if the skull is not damaged);
  • Warm (but not overheat);
  • Drink plenty of water (if the stomach is not damaged).

Respiratory arrest

Hesitant respiration should not be given artificial respiration. There is no need for oxygen. Do it 10 times a minute. Oxygen in the blood. It is better to avoid the victim’s lips. Take a handkerchief or bag of plastic bag. Backwards – so that his tongue doesn’t block his throat. It is required to check whether the victim’s heart is working.

Heart failure

May it come from an electric shock, from sudden hypothermia, etc. Signs of cardiac arrest: cessation of breathing, loss of consciousness, sometimes – convulsions. Indirect cardiac massage should not be performed. Method: (and not on the heart area). When rescuing adults, it is 60 times per minute with 50 kg. The sternum should sag by 4..5 cm. When saving children, 60 kg. 100 times per minute. You should not stop the massage, even if the press breaks the ribs.

It is recommended that:

  1. In the absence of an assistant: 2 breaths – 15 clicks on the sternum.
  2. If there is an assistant: for 1 breath – 4 presses on the sternum on the exhale.

Do not stop helping the victim for more than 10 seconds. Life for 2..3 hours. If the patient’s pupils are not dilated, it means that he is still alive. If you are going to have a heartbeat on your skin, do not appear. Do not give up work.

Blood loss

A loss of 1..2 liters of blood is deadly. Symptom of damage to the artery: a fountain of red blood. Sign of vein damage: a weak stream of dark blood. In case of arterial bleeding, a tourniquet is superimposed on the injured limb above the injury site. It should be noted. If the bleeding is severe, apply a wake. Duration of application of the harness: 2 hours in summer, 1 hour in winter. Body damage. In extreme cases, a gasket should not be placed under the rope or wire.

Dislocations and fractures

It is possible to make sure that it is possible to make a difference. Flat strips from any available material. It is not a problem. Do not attach the tires too tightly: blood flow should not be maintained in the limbs. If you want to stop the bleeding, then stop the bleeding, then apply a splint. Bandage tightly – to prevent the movement during breathing. The victim will be able to breathe. In the event of the armpit of the elbow to the body. Where is the rollers under the knees? It is not necessary to use your body.

If you need to take care of your phalanx is done. The main problems are overcoming the bone fragments. Parts of broken bones should be combined as early as possible — before the tissue edema begins. The plaster cast is done like this. Gauze or bandage are stacked in layers, interspersed with gypsum powder, soaked in warm water, slightly squeezed out, wrapped around a fixed limb in about 5 layers. Plaster bandage should not impair blood circulation. In the case of the plaster casting, the cotton-gauze pads are placed. Good plaster hardens within 15 minutes. It has been shown that it has been in the absence of gypsum. The duration of bone bonding: from 2 weeks (phalanges of the fingers) to 6 months (neck of the thigh).

As for the dislocations, then there is no feasible for them. This is done. Dislocation of a month ago is eliminated only through surgery.

Stretching and tearing

Partial rupture of the tendons are treated by immobilization for about 2 weeks. In the first two days of bleeding. In the future, useful heating of the affected area. A complete rupture of the tendons or muscles is corrected surgically: by stitching. At the time of urgent assistance is required. Signs of rupture: due to internal bleeding. The body of the body. The body of the body is filled with water, it has been filled with the stomach and intestines. Kidney rupture can occur without a breakthrough into the abdominal cavity. There are no signs of significant exsanguination. Treatment: rest, cold in the lower back, insertion of hemostatic drugs.

Damage to the skull

If the patient is injured, he will not be placed on his head. You can’t throw your head back. It is recommended that you can’t keep it. To ensure the immobility of the head should be lined with rollers. Signs of mind, headache, nausea, tinnitus. Hospitalization required. Treatment: bed rest (with at least 2 weeks), reduction of brain swelling (for this, reduce the amount of water in the body).

Spinal injuries

The victim, who has a spine, should not be kept up. If there is no such surface,

Bruises

In the case of a dry bandage, it is a tight bandage. It is closer to the location of the damaged. For cooling, you can use snow or cold water. They can fill the bag, a plastic bag, etc. For one day, for one day, for one day, for one day, for one day. In the future, this place needs to be warmed – for the resorption of blood clots. It can be followed, unless it can be followed.

Airway blockage

It should be sharply and strongly pressed. continue to breathe in the throat. This is where you made it. You should also stick out on your throat.

Heat burn

The following degrees of heat burn are distinguished:

  • 1st: redness of the skin;
  • 2nd: blistering;
  • 3rd: charring of the skin;
  • 4th: deep charring of body tissues.

The skin is damaged. Loss of less than 10% of the skin rarely leads to death. Loss of 50% of the skin is deadly, even with careful treatment. The main threat to the victim is sepsis (blood infection). If it is reddened, lubricate it with a boric vaseline. It is a woman who has been a painful killer. If the skin is destroyed, do not rinse the area with potassium permanganate, cologne or another disinfectant. Do not clean the wound from the scraps of burnt clothing. Do not tear them away. If necessary, a solution of ammonia can be moistened.

It is recommended that it be a sterile gauze. Do not put compresses with fat, urine, soda. Apply a dry clean dressing. You can use a three percent solution of potassium permanganate. Crust on it. If you want to keep track of the bandage on the wound. The victim should be kept in a dry, warm room under a sterile canopy. Special burnout centers for extensive burns.

Chemical burn

Chemical burn – tissue damage caused by exposure to a chemically active substance. If there is a chemical reaction (quicklime, sodium, etc.) off. Wash with acid, wash with acid, 2% solution of acetic or citric acid.

Electric shock

This is a subject that is still subject to electric current. Even approaching this person is dangerous due to the “step voltage”. Pull away the victim.

Frostbite

Frostbite also occurs at above 0 C, especially if high humidity occurs. Most often in wet shoes. Frostbite may occur unnoticed. Sometimes it is a sign of a slight tingling in the affected limb. Frozen limb should not be warmed and watered down to 10 degrees Celsius or 5% iodine solution. It is not recommended. (40% alcohol solution) dressing on the frozen place. In severe frostbite, it is possible to grease the gangrene. When warming frostbitten limb felt burning pain. There are three degrees of frostbite:

  • 1st: there is pain, swelling, cyanosis and hold for 4..6 days;
  • 2nd: bubbles are formed;
  • 3rd: dry or wet gangrene occurs.

Diagnosis of frostbite is very difficult. Sometimes frostbite, which seemed insignificant, leads to gangrene. 2, or more, for less than 2 months. There is no general infection of the body. The border between living and dead tissue becomes noticeable after 8..14 days after frostbite. Dead tissue is removed. It is possible to cover the bone with a living tissue. When wet gangrene occurs general infection of the body. Her symptoms are high fever and headache. If he is dead, he is not amputated; The death of limb is determined.

Drowning

A person drowned in cold water can be revived even 20 minutes after stopping breathing. In warm water, complete death occurs within 5 minutes. Drowned people are divided into “white” and “blue” (by skin color). “White” drowned – those who died instantly (from fear, hypothermia, heart attack, etc.). There is no need for a heartbeat. “Blue” drowned – for those who have water. This is a place where you can’t bother yourself with the head down. At least one liter of water is required. Do not try to remove water. It is a lively drowned man. If you’re losing your mind, you’re losing your health.

Eye damage

It can not be rubbed into the eyeball. If it gets you:

  • Pour on your eyes, often blinking;
  • The water is in the water;
  • Moisten cotton wool with water and lightly, along with open eyelids.

It is not necessary for you to be salted: about 1 g of salt per 100 ml of water.

Nosebleed

(Do not lie!), It should not be accumulated in the nasopharynx. The nostrils with a cotton swab. When swallowed blood accumulates, vomiting may begin.

Victim transportation

It is possible to breathe more easily. In case of transportation, there is a fixed supine position during transportation. It should be noted that it indicates the time of application.

Wound healing

If you can use the urine. But bacteria multiply rapidly in it. It is therefore not possible to clean your body. Wrinkled dipped in gasoline. Small scratches should be filled with iodine. In large wounds, only the edges are lubricated. Minor scratches can also be smeared with special glue (BF-6, etc.). If you’re trying to survive. Moreover, it should not be cut off.

The treatment of the wound is as follows. Dirt, foreign bodies, non-viable tissues are removed from the wound. Bruised wound should not be turned into incised – by excision with a scalpel. It doesn’t help. It should be noted that it should be carried out. It is not necessary to use it. that the wound is ventilated. If it is dried, dressings with antiseptic solutions should not be used. The wound should not be tight.

Medical care devices, especially those infected, can be treated with cauterization. Cauterization effect: disinfection, decomposition, inorganic acids (inorganic acid bacteria) to organic acids,

“Worms in wounds” are perceived as a sign of extreme neglect of the victim. Meanwhile, there is an effective method of launching a fly. It is not clear that they have been disinfectants. In the hospital using specially grown larvae. In the field of larvae, you can’t just prevent the flies from landing on the wound. However, there is a big risk of tetanus.

Phases of the wound:

  1. Phase edema. Lasts about a day. Blood and lymph are abundant in the wound. Thus, the body cleans the wound from dirt, microorganisms, non-viable tissue fragments.
  2. Phase acute inflammation. Lasts 1-2 weeks. Edema, redness and pain intensify. It is important that you interfere with the process of life. It is formed by a special granulation tissue.
  3. Phase of healing or scar formation. Lasts up to 4 weeks. It begins from the moment when the environment ends.

Actions in the phase of edema. It will be necessary to make it immediately. A person can, without much harm, lose up to half a liter of blood. It is a solution of potassium carbonate, an an alcoholic solution. He needs a lot of drink. If it is injured it is unconscious, it can be injected into the vein. It is impossible to drink. It is for the wounding season.

Actions in the phase of acute inflammation. As little as possible. If possible, do without dressings. It is necessary to cover the skin with liquid. Appointment dressings: stop blood; protect the wounded from injury during transportation; protect the wound from contamination and infection; absorb liquid released from a wound; make it a bit less terrifying to other people.

It is not required a bandage. A dressing change usually injures its healing and delays. Ventilation is very important for wounds. You can not overheat the wound. You shouldn’t feed it. If the wound doesn’t fester it, you shouldn’t disinfect it, but the body next to it. If it’s a wrinkle festers solution for all its depth. When it comes to the depth of the wound. If the channel is not enough, an incision is required. Antibiotics are useful in the first and second phases. Narcotic painkillers may be used. Alcohol is not a pain killer. It has been a great deal.

Actions in the healing phase. No need for antibiotics, ointments, washing the wound. You can feed the wounded well. If an ulcer remains, it should not be exceeded.

Tetanus

Pathogen: anaerobic bacterium that enters the body through damage to the skin and mucous membranes contaminated with earth. It makes it possible for you to go to the soil. The first signs: headache, weakness, muscle twitching near the wound, sweating, sometimes back pain. The main symptom that is formed later is severely cramps with slight irritation (touch, loud conversation, etc.). There is an ironic smile (due to the contraction of the body), an arched backward bend of the body.

In 80% of those who have been infected with tetanus. 80% of infections occur in rural areas. The patient is not contagious. The incubation period of the disease ranges from 4 to 14 days, sometimes more than 30 days. Even gaps of 4..5 months are noted. Latent infection manifests itself after some push – another infection, another injury. In the mild form of death, it occurs in 20..30 days, in severe form – death in 1..5 days.

Fatal outcome occurs in half of cases. The main causes of death are asphyxia (respiratory arrest), pneumonia, sepsis. Of complications of tetanus. The treatment consists of an additional wound treatment. Alcohol is used to relieve cramps. After transferring tetanus immunity is not developed. Vaccination provides immunity for at least 5 years. Prevention consists of tetanus toxoid.

Anaerobic infection

The rate of infestation. body tissue and thus swelling. This is a significant effect of bandage, anemia, and shock. The hidden period is 1..7 days. Defeat may develop unnoticed. Agitation of the victim, high temperature, gray color of the wound. The disease is contagious for other wounded. Treatments:

  • Enter anti-gangrenous serum;
  • Incision wounds;
  • Amputation of the affected limb;
  • Blood transfusion.

It is an oxidizing agent of potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide.

Putrid infection

It has been noted that a large number of pushes can be reached. The presence of a significant amount of dead tissue in the wound, in which anaerobic conditions occur, contributes to infection.

Treatment:

  • Excision of the wound, creating a path for the outflow of pus;
  • Soaking the wound with potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide solution.

Prevention: removal of the dead tissue, dissection of the wound.

Felon

Panaritium – purulent inflammation of the finger tissues. Often occurs under the nail. It affects the bones, tendons, joints. May be necessary for finger amputation. It makes up 25% of cases when referring to surgeons in polyclinics. Infection occurs through skin damage. Treatment should begin as soon as possible. Non-surgical treatment consists of the use of antibiotics (penicillin, etc.). There is no need to open up the abscess. It wasn’t pus. Prevention consists of splinters and skin repair.

Alexander Buryak, editors – LastDay.Club
from the book “The Art of Survival”

The art of survival. Chapter 5.3: Protection against injury

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