Fresh meat is a perishable food. Shelf life depends on the storage temperature and the quality of the meat, fat, poultry and fish itself. Product spoilage is caused by bacteria and germs. They live everywhere in huge numbers. Protein products, which include fish and meat, contain a large amount of nutrients for microorganisms. In the process of life, microorganisms secrete toxins and other substances harmful to human health.
Rules for sterilization of meat, lard, poultry and fish during canning, canning of meat, lard, poultry and fish in an autoclave.
Preservation of meat will help preserve meat for a long time and prevent the appearance of bacteria in it. However, it must be remembered that the slightest violation of technology or the rules of processing products can cause damage to workpieces. At home, meat and fish canned in various ways, but the main goal is to preserve all the useful qualities of meat, lard, poultry and fish. The main and most popular preservation method is high temperature sterilization..
meat, lard, poultry and fish largely depends on compliance with cleanliness and hygiene in the procurement process. Therefore, it is very important to pay close attention to maintaining the cleanliness of the dishes and the room when processing and preparing meat. This is the only way to avoid unwanted losses and to prepare high-quality canned goods, subject to long-term storage..
Storage containers for canned goods also have certain requirements. It is recommended to use glass or tin cans with a volume of not more than 1 liter. Of the glass containers, 0.5 liter cans are most convenient. In very rare cases, 2-liter cans with glass or tin lids are used to pack pre-processed raw materials. You can use cans with a glass lid and a steel spring. Ordinary tin lids used for preserving vegetables and fruits are also suitable..
Tin cans are used much less frequently, they are less common and available, although from the point of view of ease of sterilization and storage they are more appropriate. Both white galvanized jars and inside coated with colored varnish are used. A liter can of tin can hold 800 grams of meat. Metal containers are usually sealed on the side, so that they can be used repeatedly by cutting the case.
A can trimmer is usually mounted in a seaming device. Trimming should be done very carefully so as not to damage the tightness of the sealing on the side seam. In cans of a new type, the end of the tin in the casing is wrapped and sealed only on the outside. Such cans are not recommended to be reused, since there is a high probability of a leak in the seam.
With glass jars, the situation is simpler. They are in every home, as well as a seaming machine for them. The main condition is thorough heat treatment and the absence of mechanical damage – cracks and chips. Tin lids are suitable for all types and sizes of glass jars. Particular attention should be paid to the rubber gasket in the covers. It must be flexible, of high quality, otherwise during storage it can move away from the neck, which will lead to depressurization and inevitable damage to the product.
Glass jars should be thoroughly washed with baking soda and rinsed with hot water, steamed and set to dry upside down. Cover with a clean towel or paper. Tin cans, like glass cans, need washing and heat treatment. Those that are supposed to be reused must be lubricated with oil inside and out. If tin cans are stored in the cellar, they must be lubricated with grease to prevent rust formation..
There are certain rules for placing a raw or processed product in a storage container. So, meat can be preserved raw, processed or in the form of finished products. Processed meat, such as boiled, stewed or baked, should be placed in jars immediately after cooking, in hot form. Banks should be filled to the top, but not overfilled.
The level of the stacked products together with the filling in glass jars should be 2 cm below the edge of the neck, and in cans – 5 mm below the edge. The meat should not bulge out of the jar – this will prevent it from being sealed tightly. Excessive loading of cans, especially those types of meat, which contains a lot of tendons, cartilage and connective tissue residues, leads to the fact that during the sterilization of the lid protrude. They can break, the tightness is broken and you have to start all over again.
In addition to proper sterilization, the key to long-term storage of canned food is the correct clogging of cans. Even canned food that has been thoroughly sterilized can deteriorate if the lids on glass or tin cans are not pressed tightly to the neck. Air and microorganisms can enter the banks through the cracks, the meat will begin to deteriorate, and the canned food will disappear.
Rules for sterilization of canned meat, lard, poultry and fish.
The sterilization rules for canned meat, lard, poultry and fish – this is the moment on which the quality of the finished product and its safety largely depend. Filled cans should be placed in a sufficiently large container, filled with water and sterilized at a temperature of 100 degrees. In some cases, it is recommended to bring the temperature to 115–120 degrees.
Sterilization at a minimum boiling point can be carried out in any dish. Large aluminum pans are very convenient for this purpose. Glass jars should be placed exclusively in cold water or heated to no more than 20-30 degrees. The temperature during sterilization should be at least 100 degrees. After this, sterilization takes as long as indicated in the recipe – taking into account the volume of the cans and the features of their contents. A higher temperature can be obtained by adding salt to the water – it increases the boiling point.
If possible, it is better to use a household autoclave to sterilize canned meat. In an autoclave, the temperature can be raised using automation. Banks are laid in it, water is poured to the indicated mark, tightly closed with a lid, the safety valve is unscrewed and water heating begins. After the steam begins to stand out, that is, there will be no air left in the autoclave, the valve must be closed and the thermometer and manometer readings.
In a sealed container, water boils at temperatures above 100 degrees. The temperature increases as the pressure inside the autoclave increases. When the thermometer shows the desired mark, you should no longer change the temperature during the entire specified period of heat treatment of the cans. At the end of the process, the device must be turned off, let the banks cool. First you need to open the valve, and only then the cover. Tin cans can be cooled either directly in the autoclave or on a table covered with a dry clean towel.
If raw foods that are planned to be stored for more than 5-6 months are sterilized at a temperature of 100 degrees, it makes sense to re-sterilize 2-3 days after the first. In the interval between two sterilizations, canned food is stored at a temperature of 20-30 degrees. This is necessary so that in such favorable conditions the most stable spores come to life, take the form of microbes and are completely destroyed during secondary sterilization.
For long-term and successful storage, the jars must be properly cooled. This can be done in cold water or outdoors. Jars before sterilization are best placed in a wire basket and after the end of heat treatment immerse in a container with cool water. With glass jars, you need to be very careful that the temperature does not burst due to the temperature difference.
To once again focus on the important points in the preparation of canned meat and fish, we suggest repeating the sequence of work.
Cut and chop meat or fish. Cut the cleaned, washed, dried and, if necessary, seasoned, desired time products into pieces convenient for processing..
Process pieces of meat, lard, poultry and fish in accordance with the recipe.
Pack raw or boiled, stewed, smoked, salted or fried meat (fish) in glass or tin cans. Do not allow bones or pieces of meat (fish) to protrude from the container.
Pour the meat with broth or sauce. The fill should be hot, almost boiling. With glass jars, special care must be taken, pour a little and slowly, since a temperature drop of more than 30-40 degrees can lead to cracking of the glass. Pour the cans so that there is space to the edge: 2 cm for glass cans, 5 mm for tin cans.
Cork or cover jars to minimize microbial contamination or spore contamination.
Sterilize. Tin cans can be lowered into hot water, glass cans should be installed strictly vertically, while the water temperature should not exceed 30 degrees. The sterilization process must be carried out at a temperature not lower than 100 degrees. Processing time depends on the type of raw material and the volume of the can itself.
Cool the cans as quickly as possible. Tin can be lowered into cold water, preferably flowing. Glass jars can crack when the temperature drops, so it is better to cool them in air.
Canned fish and meat should be stored at a temperature not exceeding 10 degrees in a dry room. Banks need to be regularly checked and removed suspicious. Tins for better storage should be greased. This procedure also does not hurt the tin lids of glass jars..
If there are a large number of “explosive” cans from one batch, those that are not yet suspicious should be sterilized again. To distinguish between batches of cans, you must provide them with stickers or tags.
Canning of meat, lard, poultry and fish in an autoclave.
Autoclaves are widely used in the industrial production of canned food, however, there are also small-volume devices for home use. This is a very convenient and practical way. It does not require much physical effort, which will greatly please those who procure food for a large family. The process of processing canned food is simple. It is necessary to prepare a dish according to the recipe, put it in carefully sterilized jars and tightly seal with sterile lids.
At the bottom of the autoclave, put a thick towel or wooden lattice, place cans on it, pour water so that it covers the cans with lids more than 2 cm. Using a pump, it is necessary to pump out the air and check the tightness of the container. If everything is in order, the canning process can begin. Heating goes up to 110 degrees, then for 50–70 minutes you need to keep the temperature within 110–120 degrees. In this mode, products in banks do not lose their properties and taste, and pathogenic organisms die. At the end of the process, the fire is turned off, and the autoclave with banks is left to cool when closed.
The duration of heat treatment in an autoclave depends on the type of canned food. The sterilization process begins when the temperature reaches 112-116 degrees and lasts a certain time for each type of meat. For example, it will take 30 minutes to sterilize 0.5 liter cans of chicken, and 45 minutes for goose and duck meat cans. Heat treatment of lamb, beef and pork takes 1 hour.
Based on materials from the book We procure poultry, meat, fish. Smoking, canning, drying, cooking sausages.